Venus is the second from the Sun and the closest planet to Earth. However, prior to the beginning of space flight on Venus knew very little: the entire surface of the planet is closed by thick clouds, which didn't allow her to study. These clouds are composed of sulfuric acid, which strongly reflect the light. So in visible light to examine the surface of Venus is impossible. The atmosphere of Venus is 100 times denser than the earth and consists of carbon dioxide. Venus illuminated by the Sun is not more than the Earth illuminated by the Moon on a cloudless night. However, the Sun heats so the atmosphere of the planet, it is always very hot and the temperature rises to 500 degrees. The reason for this strong warming - the greenhouse effect, which creates an atmosphere of carbon dioxide.
Venus in natural color
The atmosphere on Venus opened the great Russian scientist M. C. Lomonosov 6 June 1761, when the telescope could observe the transit of Venus across the Solar disk. This cosmic phenomenon has been calculated in advance, and was looking forward to astronomers all over the world. But only Lomonosov drew attention to the fact that upon contact of Venus with the Solar disk around the planet appeared as thin as a hair light. Lomonosov gave the correct scientific explanation for this phenomenon: he saw it as a result of the refraction of sunlight in the atmosphere of Venus. "The planet Venus, he wrote, is surrounded by a noble air atmosphere, such (rather than more), what's going around our globe of the earth."
The pressure reaches 92 of the earth's atmospheres. This means that every square inch of pressure of the column of gas weighing 92 pounds. The diameter of Venus is only 600 kilometers smaller than the earth, and the force of gravity is almost the same as on our planet. Kilo weight on Venus weighs 850 grams. Thus, Venus is very similar to Earth in size, gravity, and composition, so it is called "earth" planet, or sister of the Earth."
Compared to the size of
Left to right: mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Venus rotates on its axis in the opposite direction to the other planets of the Solar system - from East to West. Behaves is only one planet in our system - Uranus.
One revolution around the axis takes 243 earth days. But the Venusian year is only 224.7 earth days. It turns out that a day on Venus lasts longer than a year! On Venus there is a change of day and night, but the change of seasons no.
In our time, the surface of Venus are exploring how to use space vehicles, and with radiation. So, we discovered that a large part of the surface of Venus occupy the hilly plains. The ground and the sky orange. The surface of the planet is riddled with many craters resulting from blows giant meteorites. The diameter of these craters is 270 km! I also found out that on Venus tens of thousands of volcanoes. Recent studies have shown that some of them are active.
The image of the surface of Venus based on the radar:
volcanic mountain Maat height 8 km
Venus has no natural satellites.
Venus is the third brightest object in our sky. Venus is called the Morning star and Evening star, because the Land it looks brighter just shortly before sunrise and sunset (in ancient times believed that the morning and evening Venus is different stars).
Venus in the morning and evening sky
shines brighter than the brightest stars
Venus is the only planet in the Solar system, which got its name in honor of a female deity, the other planets are named after gods of men.