The location of the letters on your computer keyboard is a legacy of typewriters, which appeared in the nineteenth century.
|Typewriter Smith Premier (eng. Smith Premier), produced in the late nineteenth century.||Electric typewriter IBM Selectric, 1961|
The principle of operation of such machines is simple. When you hit your finger on the letter key is actuated lever (hammer) cast resin matrix that letter on top. He strikes the ribbon impregnated with ink and located between the paper and the hammer, and thus leaves the mark on the paper. When typing hammers alternately strike the drum with the paper.
On the first typewriter invented by Christopher Shoulson, the letters on the keys were placed in alphabetical order, in two rows. In addition, printing can be only uppercase letters and digits 1 and 0 was not at all. They were replaced by the letters "I" and "O". At first it was all arranged. However, over time, the speed of printing became more and more, and then these machines revealed a serious problem: separate the hammers were unable to return to their place and constantly meshed with each other. Very often attempts to disconnect led to the breakdown of machines.
And it happened because in the English alphabet lot adjacent letters that are used more often than others (for example, p-r, n-o). The result is often worked out so that adjacent key was pressed one after the other, leading to adhesion and sticking of the hammers.
Manufacturers of typewriters made conclusions and developed a keyboard, which is frequently mentioned in the texts of the letters were placed away from the index finger (because before the invention of "blind" typing method were published, mainly forefinger). So came the famous QWERTY keyboard (on the first literal top row from left to right), which are still used today. She got on the computer keyboards, although they problems clutch levers (hammers) does not exist.
We must admit that the location of the letters on the QWERTY keyboard is not the most rational. It is much more convenient layout, invented by Professor of statistics at the University of Washington Arthur Dvorak. It is often used letters are in the middle and upper ranks. Under the left hand in the middle row are all vowels, and under the right arm - the most frequent consonants.
The stress on the hands becomes more balanced. Judge for yourself: for the 8-hour work day, our fingers are doing on the keyboard Dvorak path about 2 km, while the traditional QWERTY keyboard is the same is the case for 7 kilometers. Accordingly, the printing speed on the keyboard Dvorak 2 times higher compared to the QWERTY keyboard.
The Dvorak Keyboard
How do things stand with the Russian keyboard layout? Why the letters are arranged in this order and not otherwise? The fact that in Russia, typewriters, and all technical innovations, appeared much later than in the West. By this time many design flaws were corrected. And Russian keyboard was originally designed as an ergonomic, i.e. with a convenient and rational layout. Under the strong and fast index fingers were placed the most frequently used letters, and under weak fingers and little fingers are more rare.
Unfortunately and Russian computer keyboards have disadvantages. For example, for the decimal point, which is, you see, very often, failed to allocate private key, and placed it on the same key, which is the point, in the upper register! Therefore, in order to print a comma, you have to press two keys. Maybe that's why modern students, who love to sit on the Internet, so often missing commas?..