Anaxagoras from Klasemen
The first concluded that the Moon does not Shine by itself, but only reflects the sunlight, the ancient Greek astronomer Anaxagoras from Klasemen (roughly 500 BC - 428 BC). He said that a solar Eclipse occurs when the Moon is between the earth and the Sun, blocking the sunlight and the moon when the Earth is between the Moon and the Sun.
According to Plutarch, "Anaxagoras who first wrote and the wisest, the bravest and the composition of the light and the shadow of the moon, was even then famous man of antiquity, and its creation was not popular; it was forbidden and walked only among a few, and had taken precautions..."
By the way...
The sun Anaxagoras believed a giant stone that is heated by the friction of the air. This "disrespectful" to the Sun contradicted the dominant religion, and Anaxagoras was sentenced for this to death. However, for Anaxagoras stood up Pericles, and the death penalty was replaced by exile. The rest of my life Anaxagoras held in the city of Lampsaka the Marmara sea. "I'm not lost Athens, and the Athenians lost me" - he said proudly.