ancient Greek astronomer Aristarchus Samosky, who lived in the 3rd century BC, came to the conclusion that the Earth rotates on its axis and moves around the Sun. Moreover, he suggested that all the planets also revolve around the Sun (heliocentric system of the world, from GK. Helium - solar).
Unfortunately, the writings of Aristarchus on the subject of the heliocentric model of the world is not preserved (the only writing that has come to us "On sizes and distances of the Sun and moon"). About the heliocentric theory of Aristarchus we know only from references in the works of other famous scientists of that era: Aetius, Plutarch, Sextus empirical fact and Archimedes. Plutarch in his essay "On the face of the visible disk of the moon" writes that Aristarchus Samosky "tried to explain celestial phenomena by the assumption that the sky is still and the earth moves on an inclined circle, revolving however, around its axis. And Archimedes wrote in her essay, "the Calculus of grains of sand" ("Psammite"): "Aristarchus Samosky in his "Assumptions"... believes that the fixed stars and the Sun do not change their location in space that the Earth moves in a circle around the Sun in its center, and the center of the sphere of fixed stars coincides with the center of the Sun". Thanks to Archimedes, we know about one important conclusion of Aristarchus: "the size of this sphere [of the sphere of fixed stars] is such that the circumference described, he suggested that the Earth is to the distance of the fixed stars in the same ratio in which the center of the ball is to the surface". Thus, Aristarchus concluded that the immense distance of the stars; that heaven is not a sphere, but a whole universe of almost infinite size.
We don't know what reasoning led Aristarchus to the heliocentric system of the world. We do not know and why his ideas are not widely used in Ancient Greece. Perhaps the reason that Aristarchus had not provided convincing evidence of his theory. In any case, there is evidence that the heliocentric picture of the world in those days was considered blasphemous, and philosophers who adhere to it, could be subjected to persecution.
1800 years Nicolaus Copernicus paid tribute to the works of his predecessor in the development of the heliocentric model of the world: in his landmark essay "On appeals of the celestial spheres," he mentioned Aristarchus as a supporter of "the mobility of the Earth". However, when in 1514-m book was printed, all references to visionary Greek were carefully cleaned from the text. Perhaps the publisher was just afraid that they may undermine the claims of the book on originality...
The primacy of Aristarchus in the creation of a heliocentric system was acknowledged by great astronomers Galileo and Kepler.