Plastic (plastic) is a artificial materials composed of long chains of molecules - polymers. From combinations of these chains are dependent material properties. For example, hard plastics can replace metal in the production of automobiles and soft suitable for weaving fabrics, artificial leather and even fur. Plastics are used in almost all industries. The modern world cannot be imagined without plastics. However, the first kinds of plastic appeared relatively recently - only a century and a half ago.
The inventor of the plastic is a Metallurgist and inventor Alexander Parkes (eng. Alexander Parkes) from Birmingham. He used to make your plastic nitrocellulose (cellulose treated with nitric acid), camphor and alcohol.
Parks called his invention parkesine. Partsin first appeared in London in 1862, at the Great International exhibition.
In 1866 Parkes created the company Parkesine Company for mass production of this material. But in 1868 the company went bankrupt due to poor product quality, so as parks tried to reduce the cost of production.
Successor parkesine was xylonic (another name for the same material), produced by Daniel Spill, a former employee of the parks and celluloid produced by John Wesley the Hyatt. He was registered in 1870 trademark Celluloid.
Although on the bright celluloid changed color and become brittle, it did a lot of things - from billiard balls to film.
Packages, which are so widely used in everyday life for packing, make them polyethylene. The inventor of this material is Hans von Pechmann: he first accidentally got this product in 1899. But then it does not spread. Second life polyethylene began in 1933 with engineers Eric Fosatu and Reginald Gibson. First, the polyethylene used in the manufacture of telephone cable and only in 1950-ies has been used in the food industry as packaging.
One of the most versatile plastic materials - polyvinyl chloride (commonly called abbreviated as PVC). It makes toothbrushes, accessories, clothing and shoes, handrails, wall panels and so on PVC also came to light by accident. It was invented by the physicist and chemist Henri Victor Regnault (Franz. Henri Victor Regnault) from France. In 1835 he first got the vinyl chloride accession of hydrogen chloride to acetylene, in 1838 synthesized polymer based - grades.
Raw materials for production of plastics are oil and natural gas.