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What sea is the most saline in the world?

Sometimes the answer: "the Dead sea". It is a wrong answer. Although this pond is called the sea, actually the Dead sea has no flow and, thus, is a lake. And argues for the palm in the competition of the saltiest lakes in the world.

And the salty sea is the Red sea. It is located in a tectonic depression depth of 3 km between the Arabian Peninsula and the African continent, as an inland sea of the Indian ocean. The climate here is very hot and arid, therefore, on the one hand, precipitation is very rare (not more than 100 mm per year), and evaporation from the sea surface strong (2000 mm per year). In the Red sea, 't no river flows, and the scarcity of water leads from the Gulf of Aden (South). As a result, the content of salts in 1 liter of water of the red sea is 41 g (41%). For comparison: in the Mediterranean sea, that Red is connected through the Suez canal, the salt concentration is 25 g/L.


Geographical location of the red sea
(physical map)

Due to the fact that in the Red sea does not fall into the river, the water is crystal clear and transparent, as the rivers carry silt and sand. Due to the hot climate off the coast of Egypt and heating the sea bottom, the warmth of the planet's core water temperature even in winter does not fall below +20°C, and in summer reaches +27°C. Therefore, the flora and fauna in this region, there is a remarkable diversity and beauty of the Red sea, making it one of the most picturesque places on the planet. A special attraction of the Red sea give extensive coral "gardens", which can be seen, not even launch out far from shore. Corals make an additional contribution to the process of cleansing the crystal clear waters of the sea, constantly filtering it. There are more than a thousand species of fish, of which about 30% of them are endemic (i.e. found only in local waters).


The underwater world of the red sea

The reason for this phenomena in geological processes in the red sea region. Many years ago it was connected with the Mediterranean sea by a narrow channel. Then, when formed and moved continents, this channel is closed, and the Red sea was completely isolated land from other waters. Inhabiting the sea of people, cut off from their relatives, began to adapt to the new conditions of life. Later in the southern red Sea formed a narrow Strait in the Indian ocean - Bab-El-Mandeb. This is the most narrow and small place in the Red sea, and today remains a barrier to the movement of marine animals from the sea to the ocean and back.

The water in the Red sea very well and evenly mixed. In winter, the surface water cools, becomes more dense and fall down, and from a depth of up rise of warm water. In the summer the surface of the sea water evaporates, the remaining water becomes more salty, heavy and falls down. In its place rises less salty water. Thus, the entire year the water is intensively mixed, and in its entirety (except for depressions) sea the same temperature and salinity.


The resort city of Eilat on the red sea coast (Israel)

In 60-ies of the 20 century in the Red sea were discovered basin with hot brines. Currently there are more than 20 such depressions. The temperature of the brine is in the range 30-60°C and increases by 0.3-0.7°C per year. This means that cavities heated from below internal heat of the Earth. Observers, sinking into depression underwater vehicles, they say that the brine does not merge with the surrounding water, and are clearly distinguished from it, and look how muddy the ground, covered with ripples, or as a swirling mist. Chemical analyses showed that the content of the brines of many metals, including precious, hundreds and thousands of times higher than normal sea water.

 


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