The solar wind is called the stream of charged particles that move from the Sun to the Earth with acceleration. The solar wind consists mainly of electrons, protons and helium nuclei (called alpha particles). From the sun to the Earth, on average, they reach for 5.8 days. In the area of the Earth's orbit their speed reaches 450 kilometers per second, and the average temperature is 200 thousand degrees Kelvin.
Because the solar wind, the Sun loses every second about one million tons of material.
The source of the solar wind is solar corona is the outer atmosphere of the Sun (solar plasma). The Sun's corona turbulent, i.e. it consists of vortices, the density of which is higher than the average density of the plasma. The size of these vortices from one million to several kilometers (their intensity decreases with decreasing size).
As the distance from the Sun is the attenuation of small vortices. If at a distance of 3.5 million kilometers from the center of the Sun there are vortices of size 2 km, at a distance of 15 million kilometres of the smallest eddies have a size of 20 kilometers, and their speed increases. At a distance of 1.5-3 million kilometers from the center of the Sun it is 20-40 kilometers per second.
Fortunately, from the solar wind we are protected by the Earth's magnetic field. Solar wind as if to wrap around the earth's magnetosphere and carried on.
The scheme of interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere of the Earth
But sometimes the flow rate of the particles of the solar wind becomes so great that the Earth's magnetic field is not able to cope with them as easily as usual. At this time taking place on the Earth magnetic storms. Interacting with the earth's atmosphere, the solar wind causes such phenomena as the Aurora Borealis.
Magnetic storms can disrupt radio communication, change, weather, and even affect our health.