Traditional Russian souvenir, symbol of our country matryoshka very young toy: it was only a little over a hundred years ago, in the 90-ies of the XIX century. However, already in 1900 at the world exhibition in Paris dolls won a gold medal as a sample of "national art".
About the exact age and origin dolls consensus among researchers is still there. According to the most common version, the first Russian nesting doll was born in Moscow Studio-shop “Children's education”belonging to the family of the publisher and typographer Anatoly Mamontov, brother of the famous industrialist and art patron Savva Mamontov. According to legend, the wife of Anatoly Ivanovich was brought from Japan, island Honshu, chiseled figure of a Japanese God of Fukurokuju. In Russia it is known under the name Fukuruma, but in Japan there is no such word, and this name is most likely a result of the fact that someone in his time didn't hear or didn't remember strange for a Russian ear the name. The toy was with a secret: it was divided into two parts, and inside it was the same figure, but smaller, also consisting of two halves... This toy fell into the hands of the famous artist of Russian art Nouveau Sergey Malyutin and gave him an interesting thought. He asked Turner, hereditary igrushechnika, Vasily Petrovich Zvezdochka to carve out of wood the shape of the disc, and then hand painted it. It was chubby plump girl in a simple Russian dress with cock in hand. From it one after another appeared other peasant girls: with a sickle to harvest basket, jug, girl with a younger sister, younger brother, all - the-small small smaller. The last, eighth, depicted wrapped in a wrapping cloth baby. Assume that the name matryoshka received spontaneously - so it was called by someone in the Studio during the production process (Name "Matryona" is to reinvent the word "matron", meaning the mother of the family, mother, respectable woman). So the girl and named Matrona, or lovingly, tenderly - Matryoshka. Image of colorful toys symbolic meaning: from the outset, it became the embodiment of motherhood and fertility.
|Anatoly Ivanovich Mamontov.
|Vasily Zvezdochka at work
However, in this legend a lot of white spots. First, the legacy of the artist Malyutina not preserved sketch dolls. There is no evidence that Malyutin ever did this sketch. Moreover, Turner Century Zvezdochka claimed that he invented a new toy, seeing a suitable chock in some magazine. In her sample, he turned the figure, which was "ridiculous, looked like a nun," and was "blind" (not disclosed), and gave the disc to paint a group of artists.
Perhaps the master for so many years could zapamatovat who painted the first nesting doll. It could be S. Malyutin - he collaborated with the publisher A. I. Mamontov, illustrating children's books.*
The first dolls
The Museum of toys in city Sergiev Posad
Whatever it was, undoubtedly, the first Russian matryoshka saw the light at the end of the XIX century (the exact year set is unlikely). In Abramtsevo, the farm mammoth, was mass production of dolls. The first matryoshka doll - girl in a simple dress, painted with gouache, looks very modest. Over time, the painting of the toys became more complicated - there are dolls with floral ornaments, picturesque scenes from fairy tales and folk tales. Increased and their number in the set. In the early twentieth century did 24-dolls. And in 1913 Turner Nikolay Bulychev has expanded to create a 48-local doll. In the 1900-ies workshop "Children's education" was closed, but the manufacture of dolls was to continue in Sergiev Posad, which is 70 kilometers North of Moscow, in the teaching demonstration workshop.
The proposed prototype dolls - the figure of Fukurokuju depicts one of the seven lucky gods, God's academic career, wisdom and intuition. The image itself, Fukurokuju shows great intelligence, generosity, and wisdom: his head is unusually elongated forehead, grotesque facial features, deep transverse wrinkles on the forehead, in his hands, he usually holds a staff with a scroll.
The ancient sages of Japan believed that man has seven bodies, each of which protects one God: the physical, etheric, astral, mental, spiritual, cosmic, and Nirvana. Therefore, unknown to the Japanese master decided to put several figures, symbolizing the body, one to another, and the first Fukuruma and was seven, that is consisted of seven nested into each other figurines.
Some researchers have linked the origin of Russian dolls with another doll, also Japanese - figure of the Holy Daruma.
This toy is embodied in the image of a monk named Daruma. Daruma is the Japanese variant of the name Bodhidharma. The so-called Indian sage, who came to China and founded the Shaolin monastery. According to Japanese legend, Daruma tirelessly meditated for nine years, looking at the wall. This Daruma was constantly exposed to various temptations, and one day suddenly realized that instead of meditating fell asleep. Then he cut with a knife eyelids with his eyes and threw them to the ground. Now with the ever-open eyes Bodhidharma could stay awake, and thrown century there was a wonderful plant that drives the dream was so real grown tea. And later from the long seat at Daruma numb hands and feet.
That is why wooden doll depicting Daruma depict legless and armless. She has big round eyes, but no pupils. This is an interesting ritual that exists to this day.
Painted figurine Daruma without eyeballs are buying in the temple, and brought it home. On her make a wish, independently coloring toy one eye. This symbolic ceremony: opening his eyes, the man asks Daruma dreams come true. The whole year Daruma is in the house in the place of honor, for example, near a Buddhist altar. If during the year the wish comes true, in gratitude "open", i.e. paint and the second eye Daruma. If Daruma not found worthy to fulfill the desire of the owner, then the New year doll bring back to the temple, where it was bought. Near the temples bred fires burn where Drum that do not provide the fulfillment of a wish. Instead Durum who are unable to fulfill the desires, buy new.
A similar belief exists about the dolls: it is believed that if the inside of the dolls put a note with a wish, it will come true, and the more labor invested in them, the faster will come true make a wish.
The hypothesis of the origin of the dolls from Daruma does not take into account the fact that this doll is not collapsible. In fact, toy-Daruma is... the tumbler. At the base Daruma, made of papier-mache, cargo is placed, usually of clay, which does not allow it to fall. There's even a poem: "Look! Daruma as a roly-poly! I will, and Daruma leap as roly, 't want to lie!" Thus, Daruma, most likely, not a grandparent, but only a distant relative as dolls, and dolls.
Incidentally, split figurines were popular before the advent of dolls in Japan and in Russia. So, in Russia had been in circulation "Easter eggs" - wooden painted Easter eggs. Sometimes they were made hollow, and in more invested less. This idea worked out and folklore: do you remember? - "needle in the egg, egg in a duck, a duck in a hare..."