The most ancient recipe of ink, found by archaeologists, belongs to the ancient Egyptians. Long before our era they used for writing a mixture of ash from burning the roots of papyrus and a solution of gum - sticky thick juice of acacia or cherry. The same composition was used in China 2.5 thousand years ago. Chinese ink was a mixture of carbon black with a resin dissolved in alkali. It would be more correct to call such ink ink. This ink had a very significant drawback: over time it has become brittle and bounced off the paper at the folds. In addition, It was quite thick and poorly flowed from the pen. Perhaps that is why in the East preferred to draw the characters with a brush.
In the III century BC in Greece and Rome used several types of ink. From purple and vermilion did red "courtiers ink". Red ink believed in those days sacred to write they could only Emperor. Hardly "divine" August thought through 2000 years of red ink will be used by teachers all over the world, correcting errors and exposing students assessment. However, Roman ink for this hardly would be - they could be removed very easily with a sponge or just slipnot language.
And the black ink was made from soot, fruit seeds, vines, woody bone coal. Archaeologists in the ashes of the ancient Roman city of Herculaneum found a clay Cup, the bottom of which was a dark residue. It turned out that this is the oldest of all known on the earth inkwells! More than a thousand years it has dried ink - ordinary soot, diluted in oil.
There were many recipes ink. This was widely used chestnut ink (of broth peel green chestnuts), from the ripe berries of elderberry and peeled walnuts, blueberries.
The secret of the ink revealed chemist Kbhale in 1876. He found that when cooking from alder bark in the water act tannic acid that iron gives ferrous ferrous salt. The solution is poorly painted, but when drying the iron oxidizes and darkens. Formed iron oxide, insoluble in water and resistant to light.
Currently, the industry does not produce Oreshkova ink, but some of the graphics pen prepare these inks themselves.
But these ink was the disadvantage is written can be read only after 10-12 hours, and until then, the text was colorless.
Later expensive crap replaced by synthetic dyes, and ink-balls - tannin or Gallic acid. These inks are of exceptional resistance to the effects of light and chemical reagents, not giving over time sludge, flowing well with pen and brightly coloured, and still remain unsurpassed.
Soon, however, and in this invention, a new competitor aniline purple ink. It is diluted in water synthetic dye. Interestingly, of all synthetic dyes most widespread this is easily washed off, the least lightfastness, least stable, decaying even under the action of traces of chlorine remaining in the paper after bleaching. But, despite this, the purple ink used up to now. There is a reason: they are not only very cheap but also comfortable for everyday use. Except it would be nice to stain your hands or clothes in indelible ink?
Of course, such ink is impossible to archival records or paperwork. This requires a special long-lasting ink. In many countries there are special rules that stipulates that any ink in any cases, you should write.