Metro is a type of rail transport, the path of which is laid away from the streets, most often under the ground.
The first metro line was built in London (UK). It was a length of 3.6 km and was launched on 10 January 1863. Built her company "Metropolitan Railways" ("Metropolitan of Railways"), which translated into Russian means "Metropolitan railway". From this name has the word "metro", which is used today in many countries.
Who came up with the idea to let the trains under the ground and why?
By the mid-nineteenth century, the traveler could be reached with the London stations almost anywhere in the UK. But as the city itself, the people traveled mainly on Konko and crews. Train routes, carrying passengers in London, did not reach the main business and shopping centre of the city. Convenient ways to get from one station to another did not exist.
In 1843, under the leadership Isambard Brunel opened a tunnel under the Thames. This discovery proved the convenience and safety of the underground railroad. And then counsel London Charles Pearson in 1846, made a proposal to build an underground line connecting the main railway stations of the city. In 1853, the company was North Metropolitan Railway Co., and in January 1860 in Easton Square was dug the first tunnel.
On the first metro line was 7 stations, and the ride lasted 33 minutes. The cars had gas lighting, which, according to "daily Telegraph", was so bright that you could easily read a newspaper. On the opening day of 6 locomotives pulling for 4 cars, went through every 15 minutes and made a total of 120 trips in both directions and transported during this time 30 thousand passengers. The convenience of this type of movement has surpassed all expectations, and in the same 1863, it was decided to build in the London circle line length of 30 km, It was opened on 1 October 1868, and intersected with the first branch at the station South Kensington. Thus, for the first time have the opportunity to change from one underground track to another.
Initially trains pulled by steam locomotives that worked on coke (coal). So the trains spit in the tunnel clubs sulfuric smoke. November 4, 1890 steam traction was replaced by electric.
At first people were down in the subway elevators, but with the invention of the escalator in 1911, the number of elevators began to decrease. One escalator able to replace five lifts. Escalators put an end to queues on the London underground stations.
The second metro was opened in new York in 1868. He was elevated, however, the first surface areas are not preserved and were replaced by underground.
In Russia, the first metro line was inaugurated in Moscow on may 15, 1935. Later on the territory of the Soviet Union, the subways were opened in Leningrad (1955), Kiev (1960), Tbilisi (1966), Baku (1967), Kharkiv (1975), Tashkent (1977), Yerevan (1981), Minsk (1984), bitter (1985), Novosibirsk (1986), Kuibyshev (1987) and Sverdlovsk (1991).