Quasars are the cosmic objects relatively small size (the diameter is a few light weeks or months)that emit massive amounts of energy. Moreover, its power is such that she is 100 times greater than the radiation energy of the giant galaxies, consisting of tens and hundreds of billions of stars.
The word "quasar" is formed from the words QUAsi stellAR - pseudosteady. This name is due to the fact. that, looking through the telescope at these points of light, you can take them for stars. But the stars they are not.
Our nearest quasar CS 273 (in the constellation of Virgo) opened in 1963. He is at a distance of 2.4 billion light years from us is 23 trillion kilometers! The most distant quasars, due to their huge luminosity exceeding hundreds of times the luminosity of normal galaxies, you can register using radio telescopes at a distance of more than 10 billion light years.
Because quasars are the most distant observable objects, they are, respectively, the most ancient. Thanks to the quasars we can see the Universe the way it was from 2 to 10 billion years ago - so many years the light from these objects is up to us. The discovery of quasars in 1963 had a significant impact on cosmology, on the development of theories about the origin of the Universe.
What physical processes can lead to the allocation of such enormous amounts of energy, remains unclear. Most quasars are located near the centers of the huge elliptical galaxies. To date, the most widespread point of view, according to which the quasar is a supermassive black hole, withdrawing the surrounding substance. As it approaches the black hole charged particles are accelerated, collide, and this leads to the strongest rays of light. If the black hole has a powerful magnetic field, it is additionally twists falling particles and collects them into a thin beams (jets), flying from poles.