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What is the electron?

The word "electron" in Greek means "amber".

Even Thales of Miletus (600 years before AD.) noticed that when amber is much rubbing on the fabric, it will begin to attract light objects. Quite a long time it was believed that this property is only amber. However, the same thing happens with objects from plastic and other synthetic materials. You can easily observe this phenomenon with comb and hair after combing comb starts to pull hair (and yourself combed hair, notice, begin to repel each other).

Electrified hair

In the basis of the described phenomena lies the phenomenon of electricity. It is in the interaction of microscopic particles having a charge - positive or negative. Particles with the same charge repel each other, and particles with opposite charges attract each other. The electron is the smallest elementary particles having electric charge. The name of the electrons gave the Englishman J. J. Stony. He proposed to call indivisible particle of charge.

As you already know, all substances are composed of atoms - microscopic particles. Every atom, in turn, consists of a core and a shell. The core is formed by protons and neutrons, but the shell consists of electrons, and is therefore called an electron cloud.

The electrical charge is not only for electrons but also protons (neutrons are electrically neutral, as the name implies). In an atom the electrons are attracted to the nucleus because it has a positive charge due to the charge of protons and electrons - negative. But, despite these properties, the electron with the nucleus is not fully connected, as they are in constant motion. And the atom is completely electrically neutral, because in an atom the number of protons equals the number of electrons.

The structure of the atom

In metals the electrons are not bound to atoms and can move freely. Directed movement of these electrons causes the phenomenon, without which we can hardly imagine our lives - electric current. Therefore, metals are called conductors: they can conduct electric current. Substances that do not conduct current, called insulatorsor dielectrics.

Let us return to the beginning of our story and answer the question: why electrified amber? First of all, note that friction can be alectryomancy only insulators. When the friction of two bodies electrons are transferred from one body to another. In the body acquire opposite charges. To alectryomancy friction can only insulators, because only in these bodies electrons moved from one body to another, remain where they were. In conductors, they begin to move freely.

As you've probably guessed, the total charge of a pair of bodies that Ter each other, equal to zero, then there is soaring electrically neutral.

Amber electrified by friction is very easy, as well as ebonite, glass or cat fur.

 


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Total votes: 84

Your comments:

I Smith
2014-04-28 16:00:14
well it's all wrong
Idiot
2012-06-18 08:54:55
Why the electron does not fall into the nucleus?
Administrator
2011-04-22 03:45:20
The article was completely rewritten. Now clearer?
SCIENTIST
2011-04-16 08:16:15
well it's all wrong
Administrator
2011-04-08 14:32:47
Igor, what's wrong? Opposite charges attract each other.
Igor
2011-04-08 11:19:44
I did not understand " In an atom the electrons are attracted to the nucleus because it has a positive charge, and electrons - negative."
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