In simplistic terms, the magnet is a body that is able to attract iron. Or: a magnet is an object made from a specific material, which creates a magnetic field.
The magnets consist of millions of molecules that are combined into groups called domains. Each domain behaves as a mineral magnet having North and South pole. At the same orientation of the domains of their power combined, forming a larger magnet. Iron has many domains that can be directed in one direction, i.e. to magnetize. Domains in plastic, rubber, wood and other materials are in a disorderly state, their magnetic fields differently and because these materials cannot be magnetized.
Each magnet has at least one " North " (N) and South (S) pole. Scientists have agreed that the lines of the magnetic field come from the "North" end of the magnet and enter the South end of the magnet.
If you take a piece of magnet and snap it into two pieces, each piece will again have a "North" and "South" pole. If you will snap the piece in two parts, each part will again have a "North" and "South" pole. No matter how small will be formed pieces of magnets - each piece will always have a "North" and "South" pole. It is impossible to achieve, to form a magnetic monopole ("mono" means one, the monopole - a single pole), that is, a piece with one pole.
There are three main types of magnets:
- regular (natural) magnets;
- temporary magnets;
- the electromagnets.
Natural magnets, called magnetic ore, formed when the ore containing iron or iron oxide, cooled and magnetized due to terrestrial magnetism. Permanent magnets have a magnetic field in the absence of electric current, since their domains are constantly oriented in the same direction.
Temporary magnets are magnets that act as permanent magnets only when they are in a strong magnetic field, and lose their magnetism when the magnetic field disappears. As an example, staples and nails, as well as other products from soft iron.
Electromagnets are a metal core with an induction coil, which passes an electric current.