The first engine was a simple water wheel. The wheel was attached to the scapula, it fell into the river, and the flow of water brought him in the movement. Attaching to the wheel of various mechanisms, people did all sorts of work: irrigated fields, milled grain, forged metal.
In the history does not indicate who first applied the hydraulic motor. In India over a thousand years before our era there was vorosilova installation. About water mills in Russia is mentioned in the documents relating to the XI century. The first hydraulic motors was a wooden wheel with blades. The lower part of the wheel was dropped into the water stream. Such water wheels called negabinary.
As if to direct the flow of water on top of the wheel, the water will push almost half of its blades and the engine will increase even more! The obvious conclusion is not right. This water wheel called verkhnemelovym.
|Niinisalo water wheel||Verhnesadovoe water wheel|
Were later invented wind turbines. Small wheel was attached a huge wooden wings. They rotated under the action of wind and drove the millstones. Windmills were built on the open places, the hills. They can be found in our time.
In our time have learned to convert wind energy into electrical energy with the help of special installations of wind turbines.
|Windmills||Wind turbines (windmills)|
Wind and water-cooled engines do not require fuel. They are very economical. They are put in action the forces of nature on which they depend. To their disadvantage.
The steam engine more independent. The steam machine has the furnace and boiler. The furnace is heated by wood and coal and heats the boiler with water. The water boils and turns into steam. He sets in motion mechanisms. The invention of the steam engine contributed to the development of industry. Earned steam machines, steam engines, steamships.
|The scheme of the steam machine
D. watt (1775)
However, the steam engine also has a flaw: it is too big and too power hungry and requires a lot of fuel.
The inventors have designed a new engine. Fuel it burns is not in the furnace and the inside of the engine. It was named the internal combustion engine. It is more economical and stronger, as it makes use of higher quality fuels (gasoline and kerosene), smaller and lighter than a steam machine because it has no boiler. Internal combustion engines are used in cars, airplanes, locomotives, ships and other machines.
The honor of the invention of the internal combustion engine should be given to the Frenchman Philip Lebano. In 1801 he took a patent on the design of the gas engine based on the combustion open them illuminating gas (mixture of hydrogen (50%), methane (34%), carbon monoxide (8%) and other combustible gases with air, at which stood a large amount of heat. Unfortunately, Lebon did not have time to bring your ideas to life - he died in 1804, It has implemented a Belgian mechanic Jean Etienne Lenoir in 1864, However, richer, Lenoir stopped working on improving my car, and it has been superseded by the more advanced engine August Otto. In 1877 he invented the four-stroke gas engine. The Otto cycle still lies at the core of most of the gas and gasoline engines.
|The scheme of operation of four stroke
internal combustion engine
Gas engines were imperfect, and therefore did not stop trying to find new fuel. First working engine that runs on gasoline, invented by German engineer Gottlieb Daimler, together with Wilhelm Maybach in 1885. Later they invented several types of gasoline internal combustion engines, invented the carburetor, invented the first motorcycle, one of the first vehicles, outboard motor...
No matter how I tried to improve the internal combustion engine, it could not be used for withdrawal of artificial satellites in earth orbit. New, jet engine has solved this problem.
Wood, coal, gasoline, and kerosene burn because the air keeps the fire. Space rocket flies where there is no air. It artificially feeding. But the air consists of three parts: oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen. Of all of these gases only oxygen supports combustion. Decided to "take" in the cosmos, and in liquid form: so more economical and more convenient. In the rocket kerosene and liquid oxygen are stored in separate tanks. Then the pump is fed into the combustion chamber, where mixed and ignited by an electric spark. Burning, oxygen and kerosene to form hot gases through the narrow neck burst out. They are pushing up the rocket.
The device is a jet engine
|Classic jet engine
Turbojet aircraft engine invented by outstanding engineers - Hans von Ohain (Hans von Ohain) from Germany, and Frank whittle Frank Whittle of great Britain. The first patent for a gas turbine engine was obtained in 1930 Frank Willem, but the first working model was created by exactly Again. He is the father of the first turbojet aircraft that took to the skies on August 2, 1939.