You know, that's not bezdele;
Spruce in the forest, under the pine squirrel,
Protein keeps singing
And nuts all eating...
A. S. Pushkin. The tale of Tsar Saltan
Not so long ago was done such an experiment: adult squirrel, raised in captivity and have never seen hazel nut, give it a treat. The twisted forest gift and that they stuck in his teeth and only after toil reached the nucleus. Experienced problems with a few nuts, she realized that the shell at the base of the softer and there it is easy to make the groove, and then you can bite into the shell parts. And finally, the triumph of the squirrel manage to deepen the natural groove in the shell and crack a nut without much effort.
Evolution has provided our dart frogs device for chopping nuts. About how it works, said Professor P. A. Manteuffel: "In the place where it was attached to the nut to twig, protein stabs both of the lower cutter, pushing the halves of the lower jaw, which is movably fixed on the front. The lower incisors from this diverge, and nut R aswel scarfing".
But its main food is not the nuts, and the seeds of spruce and pine. Stuff it and fungi, especially boletus and mushrooms, as well as rosehip, cranberry, blueberry, raspberry, stone bramble. And she loves acorns, he prefers not fresh, and last year. Disappear in her belly and birch catkins, in which 13% fat. Drinking water and protein fortified beverages - birch and oak. To taste the juice, she deftly bites her bark. Does not reject unpalatable, from our point of view, lichens, tree buds and shoots. Will devour and tucked a butterfly. Ants picks up.
Eh, if it was limited to ants! But we are not going to varnish the truth of forest life: a small rodent, which the people consider harmless, sticks his teeth and ridge hissing of the snake, and the body defenseless little babies. In the scientific literature described case, when the squirrel hunted for chicken and finally grabbed his puny neck. And how many birdhouses ravaged proteins! That is why it is advised to make notches in it no more than 4.5 cm in diameter.
Ornithologists Moscow University grieved that in years, rich in Vaxjo, greatly thins tribe of song thrushes. Traces of sharp teeth on the remains of the shell irrefutable testified about the bloody events and the identity of the criminals. Proteins Tirana thrushes, and the population of these birds is restored only in the years disastrous for protein. Environmentalists in such situations, it is said that in the biocenosis is a surge in the number of interconnected species. How many tragedies in this dispassionate statement!
If it could replace human words M. Prishvin: "Peace to you, brothers, cute animals!" But, alas, in this case more appropriate terrible line Nikolai Zabolotsky:
| Bug eat grass, bug bite bird, |
Ferret drank the brain of the bird's head,
And the fear of making a wry face
Night creatures looked up from the grass.
Nature's eternal press
Connected death and Genesis
In one tangle, but the thought was powerless
Connect the two ordinances.
Proteins also die in the teeth of predators. But even worse for them by starvation. Their main nurse - spruce - tends bear fruit abundantly every four years. Of cones, hanging on the tree, the seeds gradually depart, and to wasnae it is empty. Where to get nutritious food in following the lean winter?
The most nimble animals of our forests, probably would have been distrofikami if they didn't care crossbills: Slavov few seeds, hospitable birds throwing the lump to the ground (after eating red crossbills it remains on average 114 seeds). Lying on the ground spruce cones are called acidic. Leaves, squirrel a big part of life eats sour odour, although the nutritional value of seeds lying on the ground shot is saved for three years. Beautiful natural preserves, in which 40% of protein and fat.
But when the harvest failed and cones are densely Packed spruce and pine, agile animals stolytsya only under selected trees, and under no hit. Thus, observing a squirrel showed that 212 fruit oil she liked only eight.
Animal likes to Eviscerate the cone, after perching comfortably on a stump. Piling quickly - with split spruce for 3.5, and pine for 1.25 minutes. Near hemp remain only the rods and loose a bunch of ugrasena scales.
Under each of the scales of a fir cones protein "missing" 58 calories, and from under the pine - 42. Pine cone stronger, and seed it a bit. It turns out that in order to eat pine seeds, animal need to spend three times more effort. In particular goes teleute day she swallows two thousand pine seeds.
Lean on cones of years furry creature to cover energy needs, you need to eat three times (by weight) more mushrooms, and five times the wood of the kidneys. Animal interrupted "with the bread kvass, fast. A day of ordinary protein 70-80 calories. This amounts to a hundred thousand kidney ate! Whether is it possible to collect and digest such a pile? Not preferable 23 grams of dry boletus? Such fungi are prevalent in winter menu teletok. They, like a true hostess, Sunny autumn days, helpdot about winter - harvest for future use in two thousand and mushrooms on the nose.
Here is a picture drawn by an eyewitness: "a fork in the branches of one birch I noticed something strange. I thought at first that sitting on a branch a few birds with long, thin tails. When approached, I saw a fork in five mushrooms with caps and long solid legs. Next on the bitch were planted separately two mushroom caps".
Stocking up for the winter yet and nuts, and acorns. Zoologist E. C. Kozlov watched the squirrel spent hours digging in the moss, attaching the pine nuts. So that thieves had not discovered the hiding place, she paws corrected scattered moss. A clever creature hid only ripe nuts, as if knowing that green will soon deteriorate.
Vecchi not doing spacious pantries: hide three or four nut or acorn and jump to another location. But how in the winter to find a grocery warehouse under a blanket of snow? Very simple - snow proteins is not a hindrance, acorn and walnut they can smell through a meter of snow. Whether such a detector dog?
I must say that the protein uses and foreign stocks. And is so, what hosts it for only grateful. Isn't it strange? This oddity is explained in proceedings of the First international Congress on mammals. This is the case. Jays hiding acorns in coniferous forests - winter abodes protein. Those digging in the snow bird pantries, open to them the way by feathered hosts. The situation is such that even with an abundant crop of acorns jays forced to leave the forest if it has no protein.
The end of February for a protein feast: the wind knocks the boy - layer snow covered branches and hinder movement. Now you can have fun, and cones are not already closed. Here's the summary: the more wind, the thinner the boy, the thicker protein.
But the cones, as we know, lying on the ground. In the feeding grounds year the squirrels will not be wasting time digging first usuany fruit: they're very tail without dipsticks and priceguarantee determine the thickness of the snow-winding chains of their tracks are drawn where the snow layer is the most subtle. Here's a concrete fact: in a mixed taiga with an average depth of snow in 22 centimeters protein has managed to pave the way, where the ground was covered only 9-cm layer of snow.
It is the other way: "One of the protein four times went under the snow... Only it was under snow 39 meters..." (A. N. Formozov).
In the role of a drifter tunnels protein is not from a good life. In the hungry season proteins come and suburban parks, looming on tourist sites, selecting leftovers, like stray cats. Sometimes through the window fluffy dart frogs carrying food from the kitchen or try to pocket the human supplies attics.
Overcome hunger protein help even their own innards. Cecum during starvation increased almost twice and becomes a kind of appendage of the stomach to digest, low in calories spruce buds and mushrooms.
Proteins, which are kept at home, starvation is not threatened. For them scared the other is an unbalanced feed. In the wild, even in a rich year, Vecchi stock up for the winter, seemingly indigestible weathered bones of animals. To avoid mineral starvation, they gnaw horns dropped by moose and deer.
And that people who have protein at home spinning wheel, fed pupils as it should, bring it daily diet based on the book "Tips for naturalist-fan": white bread-10 grams, nuts - 20 (if not, then 1 gram of butter), sunflowers 5 carrots -10, fruits or berries - 20, dried mushrooms - 3 grams. From time to time the animal should regale fir cones, acorns, fish oil (winter), salad (summer). Let the cell will always be a piece of chalk and fresh water. If protein feeds calves, it has to be "cheer" leaves of dandelion and bread soaked in milk.
As they say, the taste, the color - no friend. And with proteins: one with pleasure will eat the Apple, and the other spit out the juicy flesh and will only swallow the seeds. Person with tassels on the ears, which were spinning in the wheel and rode on the curtains in the apartment of my friend, winter was happy to get a slice of fresh cucumber. And the hunters claim that the first squirrel bait on the fish!