In recent decades, chemical fiber literally conquered the world. Although still sow cotton and flax, sheep and goats, even to the traditional natural fibers add artificial and synthetic for durability, elegance, nesminaemosti and other useful properties. Finally, to conserve natural fibers...
Prepare yourself now the most common chemical fiber - polyamide (nylon) and polyester (Dacron) would probably be quite difficult. Stop your choice on the copper-ammonia fiber. This is one of the very first artificial fibres, raw material is cellulose, for example, from sawdust and other wood wastes. Mediamine fiber used now in weaving, knitting factories, but much less than before, because there was more durable and cheap fiber. However, for independent experiment more convenient object, perhaps, not be found.
Artificial fiber formed from a viscous spinning solution, Prodanova them through narrow openings - dies. When this dissolved cellulose is allocated in the form of threads. In our case, the basis of the solution is the connection of copper with ammonia, having the General formula [cu(NH3)n)(OH)2. To prepare this solution, first of all have a basic carbonate of copper cu(OH)2CO3. If you don't have salt, cook it the easiest way is to drain aqueous solutions of copper sulphate and soda (washing) soda, filter the precipitate and dry it.
In a flask with a narrow neck pour 20 ml of 25%ammonia solution (better to do it under traction or outdoors) and add 2 g of basic copper carbonate. Closing the flask with a rubber stopper, shake the mixture, to obtain a dark blue homogeneous liquid. This magnamity solution. He has a very important property: it is able to dissolve cellulose (fiber).
Two small bottles pick up the rubber tube and pour into these flasks dark blue solution. In one throw small pieces drugstore cotton wool; he threw another batch of wool, close the flask with a stopper and shake the contents. The second bottle is exactly the same, small pieces, dissolve white blotting paper. And in any case should be viscous solutions, the density resembles a syrup. Among them are the following fiber constituting the basis of the fiber. To verify this, pour into a glass of diluted vinegar and dropwise add any of the spinning solutions. Cereal fiber will precipitate.
However flakes yarn not be prepared. How to get out of solution thread? As well as factory - Prodanova solution through a narrow opening, and a solution of sulfuric acid, it is form of a wire.
To see how this happens, put this experience into a glass with 10%sulfuric acid solution capita pipette magnamity solution of cotton or blotting paper. Part of the solution is lowered to the bottom, leaving behind a brilliant thread. Try to catch this thread with tweezers and carefully pull it from a glass. This is the real mediamine fiber. However, the thread was not very smooth. But it is fixable. Only to put the experience should be together: one will be to mould the thread, and the other to remove it from the solution.
Needle from a medical syringe paste if possible more densely in a rubber tube with thick walls. In the pour tube of the spinning solution, close the tube and immerse the needle in a dish or a cuvette containing a solution of sulfuric acid. Your friend should stand with tweezers at the ready: you will gradually compress the tube, and it will pick up with tweezers formed thread and pull it through the solution, is poured into the bath.
This experience after a workout usually good. For convenience, try to wrap the resulting thread on the spool. Instead of a rubber tube, you can take a large syringe or an old Bicycle pump.
And of viscose and acetate fiber receive about the same, only take other solvents for cellulose. In all cases, its molecules are arranged so that a focused thread.
From the thread you received, not weaving, I guess, and handkerchief. But it is not sought. You saw with your own eyes, as from plain paper, dissolved in a dark blue liquid turned out beautiful silk thread.