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In order to revive the old battery, you really require dexterity. But. even more it is you need, if you decide to make a homemade power source. It can be useful for various electrochemical experiments, for example, by anodizing or plating.

There are many chemical current sources, but perhaps the easiest to manufacture the item Grenay. It needed two discs of zinc and coal of such size that they were in the stack Lannoy Bank. Pick her plastic cover, pierce it in two places with an awl and thread into the holes of the wire. These wires hang plate electrodes so that they do not touch each other.

Electrolyte will serve an aqueous solution containing 16% sulfuric acid and 12% potassium bichromate (chronica). When you will prepare a solution, Leyte, as always, the acid into the water and be very careful.

The electrolyte carefully pour into the jar; the solution should cover plate by about three quarters. Bank close harvested cap with wires and electrodes. At that moment, when the electrodes come in contact with the electrolyte, there will be electrical potential. If the circuit is shorted, it will go electric current. It is easy to check by connecting wires voltmeter: it will show a voltage of about the 2nd Century But the current is not too great from the element will not even work light pocket lantern. But if you will make not one, but two or three elements Grenay and connect them in series zinc plate with coal, the bulb will light. As for experience with plating just one element of Grenay.

Although the element of Grenay is reliable, it has at least two drawbacks: first, it is inconvenient to deal with liquid electrolyte, besides containing sulfuric acid, secondly, do not always have at hand the zinc and carbon plates. So let's and other self-made power sources. They may be inferior to liquid elements, but will not have problems with the materials.

Tea and cigarettes often wrapped in foil, in which one side is silver and the other paper. In stores "Young technician" sell the copper foil. And the other cut into squares approximately 5x5 cm and put one on another alternately so that the copper was formed on the silver. The bottom layer should be of paper, the top brass. Have you got the battery elements; the higher the stack, i.e., the more items, the higher the voltage.

Of copper foil cut strips of the electrodes, attach them to the pile top and bottom and wrap with electrical tape, and then immerse the battery in the electrolyte is sodium chloride. To make sure that the battery is beginning to work, bring it to its poles, as you did before, a strip of filter paper moistened with a solution of phenolphthalein. Negative pole solution blush. The voltage of such batteries can reach several volts, but the current, unfortunately, is weak.

For other power sources, the easiest way is to use ready materials from old, worn out batteries. Break up the batteries and pull them out of the active mass of the oxide of manganese, which covered electrodes, graphite rods and dried pasta (gelled electrolyte) - scrape it and put for swelling and water. Manganese oxide grind into powder and mix with a few drops of Fotolia or gelatin solution. Now spread this mixture of a graphite rod or a slate pencil, leaving the top open area for attachment of the contact. When the mixture dries, wrap the rod silver paper in several layers, with the silver out, and tie with a thread. One posting tightly wrap around the rod, the other around silver paper and stick it sticky bit. Wrap the element with electrical tape - it's ready to go.

The electrical circuit for the experience

More advanced elements are obtained if the active mass and the paste is wet with a solution of ammonium chloride ( 24 g per 100 ml of distilled water; it is useful to add 1 g of calcium chloride). If this solution be heated with starch milk, you get electrolyte in paste form.

Take the plastic stopper from the bottle, puncture in the bottom of the hole and pass through it to the wire. In the tube, put a circle of galvanized iron, it must be pressed against the wire-shunts. Of filter paper cut out a circle on the inner diameter of the tube, saturate it with electrolyte, grease paste and put it in a tube. Put soaked active mass with oxide of manganese from the old batteries and press circle cut from a graphite rod - he will serve a second current leads. From such a "mirror" of the elements is also possible to make the battery, giving a voltage of a few volts.

The plastic tube can be replaced with iron tin coated - bottle with lemonade or mineral water. Naturally, the zinc in this case we do not need, nor need to punch a hole in the tube-it is itself electrically conductive, but tin item gives a low voltage.

Even more perfect element is in the form of a Cup made of aluminum foil. The glass can be made using a short (3-4 cm) cut the plastic hose. Inside lay the piece of foil is certainly greater height, push to the walls, and from the "extra" material to make the bottom and straighten his round rod, such as a reverse side of a ballpoint pen. Aluminum Cup it will replace the zinc.

Cardboard circle, place on the bottom and grease the glass from the inside gelled electrolyte from old batteries, or improvised. The layer should not exceed 1 mm . The bag is made of a light fabric fill hydrated mass IGOs2, seal, slightly pressing the same round rod, add up the weight and push the graphite rod (or stylus pen). Again slightly compacted mass, cover possibly a bag and put it on the rod of the second cardboard circle with a hole in the middle-he will not allow the electrode to bend. Light a candle and drip on the washer, and then the bottom element paraffin for isolation.

This element provides a voltage of about 1 V, touch him more than an element of the tubes. Two or three of the glass give the opportunity to listen to the transistor radio through the headphones.

O. Holguín. "Experiments without explosions"
M., "Chemistry", 1986


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