When we talked about why soap washes, you mentioned a special device its molecule: the "head" and a long "tail"and "head" is committed to the water, and the "tail"on the contrary, water is repelled...
Let us consider more closely the hydrophobic "tail" is a long hydrocarbon chain. Such connections are very common and extremely important for the industry. They are an indispensable part of many fats, oils, greases and other useful substances. One of them is the so-called stearin - we are now and you will receive, based on soap.
Knife astrogate with palkoska soap and store it in a clean tin can (or used in a saucepan). Pour water so that it is abundantly covered soap noodles, and put the mixture on a water bath. Stir from time to time the contents of the pan with a wooden stick to soap quickly dissolved in the water. When it finally happens, remove the pot from the fire (of course, not with his bare hand) and pour into it the vinegar. Under the action of acid from the solution will stand out and rise to the surface of the thick white mass. This is the stearin - translucent mixture of several substances, mainly stearic C17H35COONa and palmitic C15H31COONa acids. The exact composition it is impossible to say, it depends on the substances that went into making soap.
Of stearin, as is known from the literature, make candles. Or rather did before, because now the candles for the most part not stearin and paraffin - oil-derived paraffin cheaper and more accessible. But, as soon as we have at our disposal stearin, we will prepare him a candle. This, incidentally, is in itself entertaining lesson!
When the Bank just has cooled, assemble the stearin from the surface with a spoon and put it in a clean bowl. Two or three times wash stearin water and wrap in a clean white cloth or filter paper to absorb excess moisture. When stearin completely dry, get a candle.
That's hardly the easiest technique: a thick twisted thread, for example, from wick for kerosene stoves, dip repeatedly in slightly warmed melted stearin, each time giving the stearin to harden on the wick. Do so up until the wick will not grow candle sufficient thickness. This is a good way, though somewhat tedious; in any case, in ancient times, so often prepared candles.
There is a way simpler: just coat the wick is heated to soften the stearin (you can even just cooked, still not cooled down). But in this case, the wick will be worse imbued fusible mass and the candle will not be very good, though and will burn.
For a beautiful, curly candle and methods of making difficult. And first of all it is necessary to make the form - wood, plaster, metal. The wick and in this case it is advisable to impregnate one or two layers of stearin; then it fix in the form so that it took place exactly in the middle. Preferably, the wick was a little tight. And after that in shape pour hot stearin.
By the way, so you can make candles from the wax, i.e., in fact, from the purchase of candles, melting them and giving them the form, what you like. However, be warned - you will have to Tinker...
Having a candle of soap, will experience the opposite direction: prepare soap from candles. Not only from paraffin, soap is impossible to do, because molecules paraffins no "goals". But if you are sure that the candle stearic, you can cook from her soap. Also suitable natural beeswax.
Several fragments of stearic candles, heat on a water bath, hot enough, but not brought to the boil. When stearin completely melted, add the concentrated washing solution (soda) soda. The resulting white viscous mass is soap. Hold it for a few minutes on a water bath, and then, wearing a glove or wrap a hand towel, so as not to burn yourself, pour the still hot mass in some form, at least in a matchbox. When the soap hardens, remove it from the box.
To ensure that this soap and it cleans, not working. Only, please, do not use it for washing hands because we don't know how clean were substances that were included with the candle.