The experiments on this page, you can call it a review because when chemical cleaning and removing stains most often used are the processes that you just met in the experiments. Namely, extraction, oxidation-restoration and adsorption.
Of course, it is not necessary for the experiments to dirty clothes. Do: serotonim a few pieces of bright cloth, put it in different spots and try to bring them out. And if the experiments are successful, you can take a chance to clean and your costume (or someone else's - if you loose it...).
The most common spot fat. They are taken, usually by extraction, selecting for this purpose a suitable solvent. To derive fresh grease suitable gasoline, turpentine, medical air. A cotton swab moistened with solvent, wipe the stain several times, and the fat will go into solution. To tissue no halo, it should be cleaned with soapy water or detergent.
Old oil stains are harder to remove, then one solvent not do, the right mixture. For example, gasoline, medical ether and turpentine (7:1:2) or ethyl alcohol, turpentine and medical ether (10:2:1).
If the fabric is colored, it is necessary to ensure that the solvent does not damage the color. Before you begin, check to see whether the changes you have selected the paint color fabric.
The stain from oil varnish removes fine paste of gasoline and white clay. Doughy mixture is applied on the stain and leave it up until the gasoline is not completely evaporated. In this case, the extraction is added adsorption: white clay absorbs absorbs substances extractable with gasoline.
A fresh stain from oil paints first moisten turpentine (to soften), and then remove the gasoline. If such processing may damage the painting, then wipe the stain with a hot solution of glycerin or its mixture with an equal amount of ethyl alcohol.
Extraction is possible to remove stains from grass, Remember the experience in which we have extracted chlorophyll alcohol? Now, if you wipe the soiled area with alcohol (or medical air)can be gradually extracted chlorophyll from the spot, and it will fade.
Ink stains planted on the clothes, too, manages to discolor. To do this, pour on the stain a little powdered chalk or tooth powder and drip 2-3 drops of alcohol. The alcohol will dissolve the dye ink, and chalk will absorb colored solution. Remove soiled chalk blunt end of a knife, apply a fresh portion of chalk and alcohol and repeat this operation up until the chalk will not stay white. Let it dry and remove the remains of the brush.
And in this case we combined extraction with adsorption. Generally when removing stains such double reception, it is often the most effective: white clay, chalk and the like powders do not allow podbroshennogo solution to sprawl on the fabric, forming a halo around the former spot.
Now about oxidation-reduction reactions, which also help to remove stains.
Fresh stains from berries and juices could often be removed simply with hot water. If this is not effective, then such stains on white fabrics can discolor the hydrogen peroxide solution (dissolving tablet pharmacy hydropenia in half a glass of water). Saturate the stain with this solution by adding a few drops of ammonia, wipe clean with a cotton swab and rinse with water. Peroxide (peroxide) hydrogen is a strong oxidant, it oxidizes many colors, and they fade.
Spot on hot iron on cotton and linen white tissue can also be removed by means of the reaction of oxidation - reduction. As an oxidant, it is necessary to use a water bleach solution (caution!) in the ratio of 1:50 by weight. Overheating tissue formed brown products of thermal oxidation, and bleach destroys them, makes colorless. But keep in mind that the reaction is a salt (chloromethane) acid, which itself can destroy the fabric. Therefore, immediately after cleaning, rinse the cloth with a weak solution of soda to neutralize the acid, and then rinse with clean water.
Finally, if the fabric has got the iodine, then wiping the stain with a solution of sodium thiosulphate (hyposulphite), you remove the stain completely. You already knowthat in this reaction, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.