We kindly ask you to read this page even if you are going to experiment not at home, at school, at the station of young technicians. First, it may be useful to some simple tips to use for the experiment at hand, funds. And secondly, more importantly, we will begin with alerts and reminders, which are mandatory for all young chemists, no matter where they were conducting the experiments, and no matter how experienced no thought of himself.
Here are seven of our mandatory conditions.
The first and most important condition is strictly and precisely follow all our recommendations.
You probably know that the same chemical reaction can go in different ways, if you change the conditions of experience. For example, if you increase the temperature, or to add to a test tube of a substance, or to add substances other than the specified sequence. From this we you and warn that there is no guarantee that the reaction will go the way you assume. Here is the simplest example.
You may know that when dilute sulphuric acid, always pour slowly the acid into the water, gently stirring the solution. (Please remember this rule once and for all, and in any case do not Vice versa.) But, it would seem, what's the difference, what to add? All chemical rules have deep meaning.
What is the reason for this order of mixing sulfuric acid with water?
This mix stands out a lot of heat. Acid is much heavier than water, and when it is poured slowly into a vessel with water, the acid is immediately lowered, and the boundary where heat, is deep under water. The mixture is heated slowly and evenly, as if on a hot stove. But if we pour light water heavy acid, then water will be spread in a thin layer on the surface, immediately heated up and evaporate like water poured on a hot griddle. Couples will capture the splashes of acid, they can get on your clothing and on your skin, cause burns, damage to the eye. These can be the consequences of non-compliance simple chemical rules.
In this case, and in all other - please follow our advice strictly!
The second condition: never mix two reagent, just to see what happens. Does not always work well.
It is quite another matter, if you know that is formed in the reaction and how it goes. For example, if you have been a reaction in school and are confident that the experience safe. But in this case, take the minimal number of necessary substances. No glasses and even not tablespoons, and literally grams or even fractions of a gram. To observe the course of the reaction, that is enough. And even if you need to get yourself a significant number of substances, first put approximate the experience to get acquainted with the intricacies of the reaction.
The third condition: do not use for experiments the dishes you eat. For experiments require its own dishes. And in any case do not try substances taste (except when in the description of the experience clearly States that the product you can try).
The fourth condition: store reagents in separate flasks or boxes. To avoid confusion, stick labels, and write what is inside. If the product you no longer need (or if the experience is over, and the products of reaction you to anything), then immediately discard the unnecessary substances - so relaxed and confusion will not.
The fifth condition: do not leave dirty dishes. Firstly, it is then difficult to clean, may have even thrown away. Secondly, some substances are oxidized in air, the reaction between them can continue after the experience is over, and as a result of such reactions may be something we didn't expect. In short, after each experience wash dishes immediately and thoroughly.
Incidentally, when pure, and work more pleasant, and the older the better will be your occupation. Anyway, the experimenter only succeeds when it works neatly.
The sixth condition: never take reagents hands, do not lean over the bottles, which are reactions, not a sniff of a substance with a pungent odor. Take care and clothing, and leather, and above all the eyes from splashes and grains. This condition may be briefly formulated as follows: always be careful!
And the last, the seventh condition isthat you must follow if you want to become real experimenters: proceed with work only after you will clear all your actions. Before beginning work read carefully the description of the experience from beginning to end. Write down everything that you may need: dishes, reagents, tripod, handles and the like, until the cloth. Place them in the workplace so that everything was at hand. And only after this training, go to work.
Maybe you even can not imagine how important this last tip. If you are going to follow it, it will save you the hassle and confusion. Imagine that you have begun to experience without preparation, barely opened the book. It is written: "pour in a bottle of diluted acetic acid and throw a piece of sodium sulfite, wrapped in filter paper". This place, you will without difficulty, if only in a hurry, in search filter paper will not tilt the bottle with vinegar. The reaction had begun, began to stand out gas. And you read: "close the bottle stopper from the drain tube and pass the gas through a solution of potassium permanganate". While you will be looking for a tube, pick it up and get out of the home first aid kits manganese - you can be sure that the reaction in the bottle a long time will end, and all will have to start over, And what should have been read in advance and prepare everything ahead of time...
If you already know about chemistry, to accurately perform the same conditions are very useful to write equations of reactions in the course of the experience, to reconcile them by authoritative books or ask knowledgeable people, say, a chemistry teacher. Then all your actions will you become clearer and maybe you will be able to customize the experience, to expand its scope. But, again, only if you trust that the experience will go the way you expect
And all the young chemists, regardless of their training and experience, we strongly recommend to have a laboratory journal. This chemist necessarily recorded in the record of the work plan, list of reagents, procedures, sketches device and transfers, from what parts, the device is composed. It logs the conditions of experience, reactions, counts the number of necessary substances for the experience. And then write down their observations and make conclusions from them.
To help you understand how to maintain the laboratory journal, (and this, incidentally, can be a normal notebook), we present to illustrate the entry of this journal. Of course, this is not an example to follow it exactly not necessarily; keep notes as you're comfortable and familiar. But to have before his eyes the example of an entry will not prevent...
If your observations were accurate records are accurate, and the conclusions are correct, you did not just put the experience (which is interesting in itself), but also to understand its meaning and benefit (and it's much more important). Please do not be lazy to look in textbooks and popular books on chemistry, the experimenter must understand the essence of the experience and its features. We deliberately put this work on you, otherwise, with detailed explanations description would a reasonable size.
Now, after some preliminary remarks, to which you, of course, treated seriously, time to move on to their device, at first very modest laboratory.