We kindly ask you to read this page even if you are going to experiment not at home, at school, at the station of young technicians. First, it may be useful to some simple tips to use for the experiment at hand, funds. And secondly, more importantly, we will begin with alerts and reminders, which are mandatory for all young chemists, no matter where they were conducting the experiments, and no matter how experienced no thought of himself.
What you have now to deal, not as interesting as experiment, but it is necessary. However, the equipment's own laboratory, if you take it seriously, too instructive lesson.
If the word "laboratory" imagine a spacious room with an exhaust Cabinet, glass appliances, furnaces, pumps and high cabinets, stuffed to the brim with dishes and reagents - you in this case was wrong. We are talking about the corner of the room, optional residential, where you can put a small table and hang the shelf above it. But before you make the laboratory will follow two requirements. First, just decide for yourself whether you want to seriously engage in chemical experiments, if you will have patience carefully to put them, do not bother whether you are preparing for tests and such boring classes, like cleaning and washing dirty dishes. If you deliberately go for it all, it remains the second requirement: to obtain the consent of the elders.
Let's hope that your firm conviction take effect.
Let's start with the device of the workplace.
Desk is desirable to put closer to the window so that the light was good; and besides, if you work near a window, it is easier to ventilate the room. If the window has no place, take care of the electric light. In any case, keep in mind that you cannot experiment in a dark room!
Matter how carefully you worked on the table can get the spray solutions, to Wake up powders. In order to avoid troubles, to protect the table, put on his sheet of linoleum, or thick plywood or pressed cardboard. In a pinch you can get by with the usual cloth or plastic wrap. If the table is not given fully at your disposal, to make it absolutely necessary. In addition, it will not hurt to put on the table and the pallet - for example, a large photographic cell, which can be easily cleaned after the experience. Incidentally, the buffet after work needs to be wiped with a damp cloth and then wipe dry.
Very convenient if the table you can hang a shelf or Cabinet and keep all required for experiments. If this is impossible, you still keep ware and reagents in one place, close to the desktop. In any case, do not throw them across the room!
Get yourself a copy, please dense apron, best oilcloth. We sometimes have to deal with corrosive substances, and the apron will protect your clothes. In the pharmacy or hardware store buy a pair of rubber gloves will be useful for some experiments.
Now let's talk about the pot. Of course, it would be best to get these test tubes, flasks, chemical glasses, and crucibles. However, not always feasible. But the way out there: we need to use what is at hand.
Tubes are the easiest to replace thin-walled bottles from under tablets. Because the bottom they have a flat, heat them in an open flame can not be, but they withstand water bath. For conducting experiments and for the storage of substances suitable as the bottles out of penicillin, streptomycin and other drugs. At first, you will need no more than ten such homemade tubes.
Sometimes the tubes have warmed up, and, of course, it is impossible to hold with bare hands. The best holder for tubes than wooden Laundry clothespin, we are, perhaps, not be found. For convenience, a clothes pin can be extended by attaching to one of its forks a stick or a piece of thick wire. Made of thick soft wire is easy to make the holder, but do not forget to put on the end that you will take his hand, a piece of rubber hose or wrap it with electrical tape.
Special tripod for most experiments is not required, but it is useful to make a tripod-stand for test tubes, not to keep them for a long time in the hands. The easiest tripod is the bar, which drilled (not through) the hole diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the tubes.
Chemical ware can also serve a variety of bottles and cans of drugs that are usually closed with plastic stoppers. Such tubes are very convenient because they are standard and are suitable for many flasks. But most importantly, the polyethylene is chemically stable, it does not collapse even under the action of concentrated solutions of acids and many organic solvents and, therefore, in bottles with plastic stoppers can be stored and these reagents, which eventually destroyed the rubber tube. Incidentally, when the number of reacting substances is low, cover and tubes can also be used for experiments.
Glass containers from food - mayonnaise jars, bottles, glass, cans of jam and compote - suitable for storage of reagents and for some experiments. Remember that the dishes from thick-walled glass can be heat - it can burst, In the descriptions of the experiments we will advise what ware is better to take. If the dishes are not specified, then fit any bottle which is at hand.
Whatever utensils for storage of the substances you choose, it should be tightly closed, and it is necessary to stick a label. The simplest label from the adhesive tape. It is very easy to stick to the dry glass, it is convenient to write with a pen; when the record will fade, it is easy to update. You can do a paper label glued to its casein stationery glue, and make it more durable, it must be covered with a transparent adhesive tape.
All utensils before use and after each use) should be thoroughly washed; if the dishes are dirty, her washing detergent using a brush, and then several times with clean water.
Utensils shall be stored only clean. It should be washed immediately after the experience (this, by the way, and easier, because after an hour or two dirt can stick to the walls, I hardly wash off). Washed the dishes better be dried so that the water drained off from it. You can make this simple dryer: drive in a thick sheet of plywood long nails, so that they struck the sheet through and left it on the hat, bend sticking out of plywood nails up to an angle of about 45° and wrap them with electrical tape so as not to scratch (or to wear rubber tube). Just in case it will not hurt to blunt cut the edge of the nails. This is the dryer. It should be hung on the wall and put at the bottom of the pan that the water draining from the test tubes and flasks, put on nails, not dripping on the table or on the floor.
Sometimes in the course of the experience should be ignited any substance. There is a special porcelain, but you can do without it. Help out thoroughly washed tin cans from under Polish or vaseline. And if the matter a little, use the dining room or even a teaspoon of stainless steel. Of course, for food this spoon is not good. Just as bottles, cans and other dishes, which you have taken for experiments.
Better, perhaps, to buy specially one or two steel spoons for his laboratory. They are suitable not only for ignition, but can replace the spatulas, which are trying to enter the substance for testing. If the experience is carried out in vitro, it is possible to dispense with the spatula: powders mostly trying to enter directly into a dry test tube.
Now a little about filters. They will need very often. In the descriptions of the experiments you now and then will fall tips: filtered liquid, separating the precipitate from the solution. Sometimes, though, you can do without filtering. If the sediment is heavy, and it is allowed to settle and the liquid is poured from it into a clean beaker glass wand (this technique is called decantation). But most have yet to filter, and it must be able to make paper filters. This requires special paper, not agglomerated with glue. It is called filter. All of it is familiar, even first graders are ordinary blotting paper.
To make the filter, it is necessary to prepare a square piece of filter paper, fold it in half and in half again, and then trim the edges so that when you deploy turned round. Such a folded sheet should be spread to form a cone. Half of this cone will be of a single layer of paper, the other half of the three layers.
Another filter that is a little more complex - fold. For him, cut out a paper circle and fold it many times to get the accordion. Through these folds liquid is filtered faster, but heavy sediment can this filter to break; it is good only for light, flocculent precipitation or large crystals.
Whatever filter you took, it must be put into the funnel-glass (chemical) or plastic, which are sold in hardware stores. It should fit snugly to the funnel and not reach its edges by a few millimeters. Before the filter is wetted with a solvent (usually water; we often will have to deal with aqueous solutions), then carefully pour the liquid from the precipitate. Filtering requires patience, because the liquid through blotting paper passes slowly. But in any case, keep your nose filter - all work will go down the drain.
Sometimes you can filter through cloth or several layers of gauze is slightly more likely, but not as effectively. In the descriptions of the experiments will be described, through which material can be filtered without prejudice to the case. If special remarks on this occasion you will not find, then filter through a paper filter.
In some experiments, the substance must be heated. If you want to heat the reactants, it is more convenient (and safer) to use a water bath. As the water bath is suitable aluminum pitcher with handle or simply wide tin can. To heat the mixture to the required temperature, for example, to boil, you need to place the tube in water, particular object sticking its bloated into a bucket, and that the tube did not fall, wrapped the tube with the wire to get 2 "USA". These whiskers are placed on the edge of the pan. Or make the cover out of plywood so that she could lie on the pan, and cover drill hole for tubes and fix their wiry mustache, only very short.
When the substance is heated in a glass, the cover is not needed. The glass is placed in a water bath, but not directly on the bottom (so it may overheat), and the stand out of plywood or a piece of wood. In the stand, it is desirable to cut holes so that water can circulate. And that the tree was not surfaced, the stand should fit snugly to the walls of the baths.
Pour a lot of water is not required, it is sufficient if the glass or test tube will be immersed in the water in half. As boiling water should gradually pour.
A water bath can be heated on a gas or electric stove or closed hobs (please remember about accuracy!). If it is necessary to heat the substance in an open flame until higher temperatures, it is better to use the stove with dry alcohol, pills which are sold in hardware and sports shops,dry fuel is often used by tourists. Tablets combustible give smooth and hot flames. Burned it on a specially made". It can be made of thick steel wire in the form of a tripod and put on top of the tin lid with curved edges, for example from glass canning jars, cover and set fire tablet. Prepare and Restany cap, for example, a small tin can, which you will extinguish the flame: cover cap burning pill, the air will cease to act, and the flame will go out.
Another way of heating to high temperatures - a sand bath. In a small pan, sprinkle an even layer of dry calcined sand to a height of about 2 cm On the sand, put a porcelain Cup or a metal can with the reaction mixture and heat of a sand bath on the hot plate. This is an old, reliable and safe method of annealing, although not very fast.
In conclusion, a few words about the measurement of mass and volume.
For home lab will suit pharmacy scales, they are reasonably accurate and are inexpensive. The same type scale with rocker for otoshiana of photoreactive sell in photoshop. Fit and balance with a measuring range up to 100 g; high precision weighing for most of our experiments will be required.
As for the measurement of volumes, then for this purpose you can use the pharmacy the beaker - glass glass with divisions or measuring Cup. In a pinch you can use a measuring bottle, from which is fed through the nipple babies. Sometimes we will need and more complex instruments, many of which can be collected from local funds. As discussed in the descriptions of the experiments.