From 3500 species of mammals globe more than 900 - bats. That is, each of the fourth "beast" of the planet flies! For example, in the oases of Central Asia lives of up to two thousand of these creatures per square kilometer; there's more than all other mammals, including the creators of the oases. If in the middle lane at dusk before you flashed one or two bats, I can safely say that there per square kilometre lives 50-100 of these animals, in their time, these mice misunderstanding. For any relationship to rodents, they have not.
Mouse, as you know, spoil plants, and our domestic insectivorous bats are the animals lay on his stomach on the protection of green covered the earth. Calculations K. K. Panatina indicate that the center of the European part of the country where they hunt for insects on 10% accelerates the growth of trees. Useful activity night flyers gave grounds to take legal provisions, equating their extermination to poaching. But, alas, they still destroy evil and ignorant people, especially teenagers. And if you learn about the impressive clusters of bats in a cave or somewhere in the attic or cases of mass death or will meet ringed animal, please inform the Commission on the post-bats Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Moscow, Leninsky prospect, 33).
There has been, for example, information about the bewilderment of the employees of the Central Bank one of the Central Asian republics and complaints of the employees of the Telegraph in the city of Voronezh. In the beginning of autumn in these venerable institutions, rather, in the lamp under the ceiling stuffed with hundreds of bats. This also happens in Western Europe. Where they gently escorted, and where and mercilessly take out to the trash buckets. Usually invasion caused by the fact that adult animals already flew to wintering grounds, and inexperienced first-year, gathering a crowd, begin to disperse, slowly, as if reluctantly, moving closer to winter apartments. But what are their lures building Voronezh Telegraph?
Winter bats should be conducted in a secluded place. Best - in the cave, where the temperature is around zero (so as not wanted there) and sufficient moisture to thirsty). Alas, in the caves now restless now and then sigaut tourists. And you have the bat creatures for the winter to hide in an abandoned mine, in the attic or even in a haystack or burrows of sand Martin.
To swallow a hole a lot of bats will not fit, but they passion as I love the company, and especially cold: lay dormant in their bodies cool down to two degrees, breathing, and heart rate hundreds of times less than in summer. By the way, part of the cooling and heating of any mammal not afford to compete with bats - their body temperature without damage to health can vary from -7,5° to +48,5°! Wow - the range of 56°, like a piece of ice, almost as hot pan.
It would seem that with such stamina to spit mice for utilities. But among these beings have admirers double glazing and Central heating. Don't believe? Here is a fact: more than forty years with bats was not the slide in the educational building of the Department of chemistry of Uzhgorod University. Zoologist I. Taranin writes that to work in rooms where between frames hung garlands of bats animals, was not very nice. Indeed, the constant smell of ammonia coming from thousand wintering flocks, sharp cries, until the mouse had not hibernated, hardly contributed to the smooth flow of the educational process.
Insectivorous animals walked forward, trying to improve their living conditions. Sleeping animals were put in boxes and took in the other house, where the conditions for them seems to be better. But as she fell the frost, the mouse was returned. Once their show out for 22 kilometers, but they came back from there. If they'd done to us, we would find home bed?
In fact, all bats are very attached to their winter homes. Our biggest colony for centuries, lives in one of the caves of Nagorno-Karabakh. Here regularly winters are about 12 thousand animals.
Bats ringed in the Voronezh reserve, during seasonal migrations observed in the Caucasus, in the Crimea and abroad. In the summer they fly in the same hole at the same attics, where they lived before. But here's the paradox: some of the migratory species on a summer apartment, his real home, is only one male 20 female, and the other, very close species all winged men remain in the resort areas. What makes pregnant females of fertile edges of the North? Here is what. In June-July, when they feed calves, insects, flying at night, there is clearly more than there, where only males. It is the abundance of insects allows tiny mother - the female bat-dwarf, weighing only five grams (the weight of a Nickel) and a mother of two cubs weighing one gram (weight of a penny), for three or four weeks to feed milk both to 4.5 grams.
Probably, it is already clear, however it is undesirable to disturb bats in their homes. Especially in June and July. Because they usually have only one or two calves are born every year. But no less dangerous and anxiety during a winter of hibernation. Violent awakening and finding another place is a huge waste of fat accumulated in the summer of energy. In the middle lane about half a year of no flying insects and life in miniature cells glimmer only at the expense of stored summer energy fat. Animal saves struggling. If during the flight the heart makes 400-600 beats / minute, and body temperature of about 40°, dormant - sluggish 3-4 hit, and the temperature drops to the temperature of the dungeon or the attic. The rate of biochemical processes falls a hundred times! And if hibernation takes place in the silence and calmness, wear and tear of the body is almost there.
But in the summer, in the afternoon, when the bats are sleeping, the body cools down almost to the ambient temperature. However, females this holiday does not bring special benefits, they need to produce milk. But the lazy males conductive hibernation and daily torpor nine-tenths of life, stay in this world more than friends. Some of them live and 30 years. However, this active life they have only two or three years, the same as in other warm-blooded creatures of the same size.