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J. Perelman
"Entertaining physics". Book 2.
Chapter 8. The magnetism. Electricity


Such a poetic name given by the Chinese natural magnet. Loving the stone (TSU-Shi), say the Chinese, " attracts iron, like a loving mother attracts their children. It is remarkable that the French are a people living on the opposite end of the Old world, we find a similar name to the magnet: the French word "aimant" means "magnet", and "loving".

The power of this "love" from natural magnets is negligible, and therefore it is very naive sounds Greek name magnet - "Hercules stone". If the inhabitants of ancient Hellas was so amazed moderate natural force of attraction of the magnet, what they would say, seeing in modern metallurgical plant magnets, lifting boulders in whole tons of weight! However, it is not natural magnets and the electromagnets", i.e. iron mass, magnetized by an electric current passing through the winding. But in both cases the force of the same nature - magnetism.

We should not think that the magnet only works on iron. There are a number of other bodies, which are also experiencing a strong magnet, though not as much as iron. Metals: Nickel, cobalt, manganese, platinum, gold, silver, aluminum - low severity are attracted by a magnet. More remarkable properties of the so-called diamagnetic bodies, such as zinc, lead, sulfur, bismuth: these bodies are repelled by a strong magnet!

Liquids and gases also feel the attraction or repulsion of the magnet, however, is very weak; the magnet must be very strong to exert influence on these substances. Pure oxygen, for example, attracted by a magnet; when filled with oxygen bubble and place it between the poles of a strong electromagnet, the bubble will significantly stretch from pole to pole, tie rod invisible magnetic forces. The candle flame between the ends of a strong magnet changes its basic form, clearly detecting sensitivity to magnetic forces.

The candle flame between the poles of an electromagnet.

Entertaining physics J. Perelman


System Orphus


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