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J. Perelman
"Entertaining physics". Book 2.
Chapter 6. Properties of liquids and gases

HOW DID YOU ACCOMPLISH THE DREAMS OF JULES VERNE AND WELLS

Real submarines of our time in some respects not only caught up with fantastic Nautilus Jules Verne, but even surpassed it. However, the speed of the current submarines half the speed of the Nautilus: 24 knots against 50 in Jules Verne (the site is approximately 1.8 km per hour). The longest transition of modern submarine boat - trip around the world, while captain Nemo made the trip twice as long. But the Nautilus had a displacement of only 1,500 tons, had on Board a team of only two or three dozen people and was able to stay under water without a break of not more than forty-eight hours. Submarine "Surcouf", built in 1929 and owned by the French fleet, had 3200 tons displacement, was managed by a team of one hundred and fifty people and was able to stay under water without surfacing, up to one hundred twenty hours*.

The transition from the ports of France to the island of Madagascar, this submarine could do without going on the road in any port. On comfort living quarters "Surcouf", may be conceded to "Nautilus". Further, "Surcouf had before ship captain Nemo and the undoubted advantage that on the upper deck of the cruiser is designed to be waterproof hangar for reconnaissance seaplane. Note also that Jules Verne was not supplied "Nautilus" periscope, giving the boat an opportunity to survey the horizon from under the water.

Only real underwater vehicles share will still be far behind the creation of the fancy French novelist: the immersion depth. However, it must be noted that in this paragraph the imagination of Jules Verne has transcended the boundaries of credibility. "Captain Nemo, " we read in one place of the novel, has reached a depth of three, four, five, seven, nine and ten thousand feet below the surface of the ocean. And once the Nautilus sank even to an unprecedented depth is 16 thousand meters! "I felt, " says the hero of the novel, as fear of a clamp of the iron plating of the underwater vessel, as the bent of his thrusts as served inside the box, giving the water pressure If our ship had the strength of a solid die-cast body, it instantly flattened would be cake."

Fear is appropriate, because at a depth of 16 km (if this depth there was in the ocean) water pressure would reach 16 000 : 10 = 1600 kg per 1 cm2 , or 1600 technical atmospheres; such an effort is not dissolved iron, but certainly crushed the design. However, such depth of modern Oceanography't know. Exaggerated ideas about the depths of the ocean that prevailed in the era of Jules Verne (novel was written in 1869), are explained by the imperfection of methods of depth measurement. In those days, for Lin-lot was not used wire and hemp rope; such lot was held by the friction of the water the stronger, the deeper he sank; deep friction was increased to that lot at all ceased to fall, no matter how tormented Lin: hemp rope was just confused, giving the impression of great depth.

Underwater ships of our time is able to withstand a pressure of about 25 atmospheres; it defines the maximum depth of immersion: 250 m Much greater depth has been achieved in a special apparatus called the "bathysphere" (Fig. 51) and is designed to study the fauna of the ocean depths. This device is similar to, but not Nautilus Jules Verne, and fantastic creation of another novelist - deep sea ball wells described in the story "the sea". The hero of this story went down to the ocean floor at a depth of 9 km in thick-walled steel ball; the apparatus was immersed without cable, but with a removable cargo; reaching the bottom of the ocean, the ball was released here from carrying away his goods and rocketed to the surface of the water.

In the bathysphere scientists reached a depth of over 900 feet, the Bathysphere down by a rope from the vessel, which seated in the ball support telephone connection **.


Steel ball apparatus "bathysphere" to descend into the deeper layers of the ocean.
In this apparatus William Bib reached in 1934 depth of 923 m
The wall thickness of the balloon is about 4 cm, diameter 1.5 m, weight 2, 5 tons.

* In modern conditions underwater vessel, equipped with a nuclear engine that makes a man free to choose the paths in the unexplored depths of the seas and oceans. Inexhaustible reserves of energy on Board podvodnoy vehicle allow, but floating on the surface, to do a lot of transitions. So, in 1958 (from 22 July to 5 August) American submarine with a nuclear engine "Nautilus" was submerged in the North pole, having made the trip from the Bering sea to Greenland. (Note, as amended).
** Later in France under the direction of engineer Wilma and in Italy, under the project of the Belgian Professor Piccard special equipment for deep-sea research - submersibles. Their essential difference from batofar is that they can move, swim at great depths, whereas baptistery helplessly hanging on the ropes. First, Picard fell in the bathyscaphe more than 3 km, then the French Guillaume and Vilm overcame next milestone - reached a depth of 4050 m November 1959-submersible at a depth 5670 m, but this is not the limit. January 9, 1960, Piccard descended 7300 m, and January 23, its the Trieste reached the bottom of the Mariana trench at a depth of 11, 5 km! According to current data it is the deepest place in the world. (Approx. as amended).

Entertaining physics J. Perelman

 




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