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J. Perelman
"Entertaining physics". Book 2.
Chapter 6. Properties of liquids and gases

HOW DOES THE ICE-BREAKER?

Taking a bath, do not miss the chance to make the next experience. Before leaving the tub, open the outlet, still lying on her bottom. As will be projecting above the water an ever-larger part of your body, you will feel a gradual its otjinene. The most obvious, make sure you that the weight lost by the body in the water (remember how easily you feel yourself in the bath!), appears again, only the body is out of the water.

When such experience unwittingly does the kit come at low tide on the rocks, the consequences are fatal for the animal: it will crush its own monstrous weight. No wonder whales live in water: buoyancy force of the liquid saves them from the destructive action of gravity.

This has a direct bearing on the title of this article. The operation of the breaker based on the same physical phenomenon: made from water part of the ship is no longer balanced by the buoyancy effect of the water and gets its "land" weight. We should not think that the breaker cuts the ice on the move continuous pressure from his fore - head stem. So don't work icebreakers and ice-cutters. This way is only suitable for relatively small ice thickness.

Genuine sea ice breakers such as "Krasin" or "Ermak", - work differently. The action of their powerful machines icebreaker is approaching on the surface of the ice his nose, which to this end is arranged strongly oblique under water. Once out of the water, the bow of the ship becomes your full weight, and this huge load ("Ermak" this weight is reached, for example, up to 800 tons) breaks off the ice. To enhance the action in the nasal tank icebreaker often pump more water - liquid ballast".

This is the effect of ice-breaker as long as the ice thickness does not exceed half a meter. More powerful ice conquered by the percussive action of the vessel. Icebreaker steps back and hits all his weight on the edge of the ice. If this works weight and kinetic energy of a moving ship; the ship becomes as if an artillery shell low speed, but a huge mass, Taran.

Hummocks several meters in height divided by the energy of repeated shocks durable bow of the icebreaker.

A member of the famous transition "Sibiryakov" in 1932, the sailor-polar N. Markov, describes this icebreaker:

"Among hundreds of icy rocks, among solid ice "Sibiryakov" the battle began. Fifty-two hours straight arrow machine Telegraph jumped from full back to full forward." Thirteen four-hour marine watches "Sibiryakov" with acceleration and crashed into the ice, bashed his nose, she stepped on the ice, broke it and would go back again. The ice thickness of three quarters of a meter, he gave way. With every blow made the way to the third corps".

The largest and most powerful icebreakers in the world has the USSR.

Entertaining physics J. Perelman

 




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