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J. Perelman
"Entertaining physics". Book 2.
Chapter 9. Reflection and refraction of light. Vision


We often talk about the "illusion", "the deception of hearing, but these expressions are incorrect. Deceptions of the senses are not. The philosopher Kant aptly said on this occasion: "the Senses do not deceive us, not because they always judge, but because it does not judged."

What deceives us with the so-called "deceptions" feelings? Of course, that in this case the judge, i.e., our own brain. Indeed, most of the deceptions of view depends solely on the fact that we not only see, but also unconsciously think, and unwittingly introduce yourself astray. This is the deception judgments, not feelings.

Two thousand years ago the ancient poet lukretsiy wrote:

Our eyes are not able to know the nature of the items.
And therefore does not impose on them delusions of the mind.

Let's take a well known example of optical illusion: the left figure in Fig. 1 seems to be narrower than the right, although both are limited strictly identical squares. The reason lies in the fact that the estimation of the height of the figure on the left is as a result of the unconscious summing the individual intervals, and because she seems to be more than equal to the width of the same shape.

That wider - right or left figure?

On the contrary, in the figure to the right because of unconscious reasoning width seems more height. For the same reason, the height of the figure Fig. 2 seems more of its width.

What's more, in this figure, the height or width?

Entertaining physics J. Perelman


System Orphus


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