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J. Perelman
"Entertaining physics". Book 1.
Chapter 3. The resistance of the medium

LONG RANGE SHOOTING

To shoot at the enemy from a distance of a hundred and more miles for the first time since the German artillery by the end of the imperialist war (1918), when the successes of the French and British aviation put an end to air raids by the Germans. The Germans chose a different, artillery, way to hit the capital of France, far from the front line not less than 110 km

The way this was brand new, nobody has yet tested. Bumped into him and the German gunners accidentally. When firing large-caliber gun at a large angle of elevation unexpectedly discovered that instead of a range of 20 km is achieved in the range of 40 km was Found that the bullet sent up abruptly with a large initial velocity, reaches those high sparse layers of the atmosphere, where air resistance is very small; in such a poorly resistant medium projectile flies a significant portion of its path and then cool down to earth. The figure below shows how great the difference in the paths of the projectiles when the angle of elevation.


How does the projectile range with tilting Sverdlovenergo tools; at the angle of 1 projectile falls in R', at an angle 2 - P", when the angle 3 range immediately increases many times, as the projectile flies in rarefied layers of the atmosphere.

This observation was supposed by the Germans in the framework of the project sverhdolgosrochnoy gun for firing Paris from a distance of 115 km Gun was. successfully made and during the summer of 1918, released in Paris over three hundred shells.

This is what has become known about this gun later. It was a huge steel pipe 34 meters long and a meter in thickness; the thickness of the walls in the breech 40 see Weighed gun 750 tons. His 120-pound shells had a meter in length and 21 inches in thickness. For charging was used 150 kg of gunpowder; developed pressure at 5000 atmospheres, which threw the projectile with a muzzle velocity of 2000 m/sec. Shooting was carried out under the elevation angle of 52°; the projectile described huge arc, the highest point of which lay at 40 km above the earth, i.e., far in the stratosphere. His journey from positions to Paris - 115 km projectile was done in 3.5 minutes, 2 minutes he was flying in the stratosphere.

This was the first Sverdlovskaya gun, the ancestor of modern sverhdolgosrochnoy artillery.


German gun “Colossal”. The appearance.

The greater the initial speed of the bullet (or projectile), the air resistance greater: it increases not proportional to speed, and faster, in proportion to the second and higher degree of speed, depending on the magnitude of this velocity.

Entertaining physics J. Perelman

 




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