Usually the composer, writing some piece, pre-ponders it, making sketches, and then writes an essay on music paper, carefully trimming every detail. But sometimes the musician sits down at the piano, takes a few disjointed chords, and then, as if thinking, begins to play. Sound passages, arise and disappear melody, again being replaced by the spill passages... Ask this musician that he played, and he will answer: Oh, nothing, just improvise.
The Latin word improvisus means unexpected. To improvise means to play, while writing, or, rather, to write without pre-training, immediately fulfilling what was written. There are improvisers, not only musicians, but also poets. One of the poets, improvisers tells Pushkin in the remaining unfinished story "Egyptian nights".
In ancient times the art of musical improvisation has been developed very extensively. Every musician, acting in concert, had to improvise by order of the public work in a certain shape variations, Fugue, Sonata, theme, suggested someone from attending. Tell such a case. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, it was decided to arrange a competition between performers. And now, in the autumn of 1717 in Dresden came very fashionable French organist, pianist and composer Louis Marchand. There also aroused by Johann Sebastian Bach, yet little-known German musician. The day before the scheduled race Bach was in the Royal Palace to listen to his rival. Marchand played brilliantly. He was much applauded, and then offered and German musician "try the tool". Bach immediately repeated the song, the theme of which was improvised Marchand, and varied it with great art, completely overshadowing the opponent. Then Bach wrote on a piece of paper melody and gave it to Marchand. It was a subject that French musician was next to improvise. Bach, in turn, asked Marchand theme for his improvisation. The next day the court society has long awaited the arrival of the Palace of the famous Frenchman, but he never came. It turned out that he ran away, did not dare to try to compete with a brilliant improviser.
And here is an excerpt of the program one of the concerts of the little Mozart (you probably know that Mozart from an early age he showed himself as a brilliant musician. In six or seven years, he has performed concerts in different countries):
"6. Aria, which Mr. Amadeo (the so-called Mozart in Italy) will compose the suggested verses and then will sing, accompanying himself on clavichord.
7. Sonata on a theme, which will be offered their choice of the first violinist of the orchestra, composed and performed by Mr. Amadeo...
10. Fugue on a theme proposed spur of the moment..."
In one Italian city students, who could not believe that the child is able so inspired to improvise, demanded that he took the ring from her finger. They decided that the magic ring and manages the hands of the boy. Of course, clearing the ring, Mozart continued to play as well.
Günter Werner Hans Ramin
Great improviser and was Beethoven, and many other composers of the past. The brilliant violinist and composer Niccolo Paganini, for example, told me that his best work is not what is written, published and known to all, and those that he improvised on the mood and never repeated.
In our time, the art of improvisation is almost forgotten. Only extremely rare musicians that can write "the eyes of the public." This happened primarily because of the music, as in all areas of our lives, dominated by "specialization": composers now are not simultaneously concert performers and professional musicians-Concertante, as a rule, do not have outstanding compositional data. The old traditions of improvizirovanija preserved only in some organists. So, in the early 60-ies in our country on tour came Thomaner-choir - choir of the Leipzig thomaskirche Church, in which a long time ago many years worked I. S. Bach. Choir Director günther Ramin was improvised on the harpsichord prelude and Fugue, the theme for which he was offered a Soviet musicians attending the concert.