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Music dictionary in the stories. Letter


Perhaps you know that the great Beethoven suffered from disease of the ear, and to the end of his life, absolutely nothing was heard. He could not hear and performance of their most recent works.

How so, you ask. Because we all know that hearing is the most important thing for a musician. Children with hearing impairments do not accept even a music school, and here is a great composer, author of the genius works, it turns out, wrote them, being quite deaf! The fact that hearing, that is, the ability to perceive the cymbal world, is different.

Physical hearing gives us an opportunity to hear in a physical sense: to hear that all the time around us. The sound of waves, the rustling of leaves, the hum of bees, the crackle of twigs... Here a person a lot of rivals: almost all animals hear better than we, hearing is much more acute. You probably could not just make sure, if you love animals. Dog alarming ears and starts barking when you don't hear other people's steps, cat greedily curves back and silently sneaks to the wall, you still can't catch a mouse scratching.

But there is another hearing music, unique to man. Musical hearing is the ability to see the connection between sounds, to remember and to reproduce them, perceive them not as random combinations, and understanding their meaning, realizing their artistic value. This hearing and required by each musician. In one form or another an ear for music, everyone has. Just some he expressed very clearly and others weaker. But an ear for music, you can develop if you really want and persevere. Indeed, in the music school take those children whose hearing is better, but there are teachers who deal with all. And after several years not to understand who was once the best, and who. it seemed that no ear for music at all: intelligent teacher was able to develop an ear for music of all his disciples.

However, there is the so-called absolute ear for music that is considered important for a musician. Hearing this - the ability to hear absolute pitch. Its owner can tell me what the height of a sound in the distance extending from the berth the ship or spoon, svecova in the glass. If he is to play the melody, he not only repeat her voice, but will call with all its sounds.

Ludwig van Beethoven
Carl Styler
Ludwig van Beethoven (1820)

However, to envy the possessors of absolute hearing is not necessary. It is not a sign of a special musicality. Whatever it is that people with perfect pitch are completely indifferent to the music, and if it starts to do it, then success is not achieved. In addition to the absolute hearing required musicality, the ability to hear and reproduce the logic of harmonic or polyphonic development. You can hear the holders of absolute ear even complain about this property: notes climb in the ears, making it difficult to concentrate on the music. So if you don't have perfect pitch, do not worry, and develop a relative, given to you by nature.

By the way, not all composers had perfect pitch. He was a very sophisticated Rimsky-Korsakov. Each tone seemed painted in particular, only the inherent color (this is the so-called colored hearing). For example, in e flat major seemed to him the color of the sea waves, so many pages of music devoted to the sea, written in e flat major. D-flat major seemed Golden. But Tchaikovsky absolute hearing was not. So what? Unless he wrote the music worse? Much more important for a composer, and for any musician, to have a well-developed inner ear, i.e. to be able to hear the music of "inside", not reproducing it aloud.

It is a magnificent inner ear has enabled deaf Beethoven to continue to do: he had heard all write their music heard and recorded, while playing its musicians, its real sound, to hear could not. Inner ear amenable to development. It is possible to train the various exercises. For example, take simple notes, first, only the melody, and try to imagine how it sounds, and then test yourself by playing the melody on the piano. Professional musicians can play inner ear even complex orchestral scores. Without this skill you cannot, for example, to become a conductor. And now back to the "colored hearing". He was not only Rimsky-Korsakov. Many musicians certain tones are associated with a particular color. The Association of these are subjective. That is, different musicians the same tone can cause different color impressions. But there are, apparently, and General patterns. So, probably not accidentally, many gloomy, mournful works written in the key of C minor, and cheerful, Sunny in d major. The problems of sound and colour are interested in Scriabin. One of his works, the symphonic poem "Prometheus"even conceived as not only music, but also color; the music must be accompanied by a color-light effects.

Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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