Portrait of a musician M. Waligorski (1828)
As well as violin and viola, cello belongs to the group of string bow instruments. It is very similar to them, but much larger. The range of the cello from up to great octave to the mi of the third octave. However, the upper limit of the range of the conditional: it depends on the skill of the performer, while the lower on any stringed instrument is determined by the open sound, that is not clamped, the lower strings.
The sound of the cello thick, rich and melodious. Tone it resembles the human voice and most of all - baritone. Cello perfectly manage the wide melodic tunes. In them most clearly reveals the rich possibilities of the instrument, its beautiful noble timbre. But masterly works quite affordable this tool.
If the violin and viola musicians kept horizontally on the shoulder, the cello is too big for this. It put vertically. Earlier in the past century on a special chair, and played standing up. Then adjusted the metal spire, which rests on the floor, and the player sitting, place the tool between his knees.
For cello written many works. Known Variations on a Rococo theme by Tchaikovsky, Concerto for cello and orchestra Dvorak, Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Khachaturian.
In the orchestral works of the cello is often assigned expressive solos, such as the wonderful waltz melody from the first movement of the Unfinished Symphony by Schubert, as the topic of the second part of the Sixth Symphony by Tchaikovsky.
P. I. Tchaikovsky. Variations on a Rococo theme for cello and orchestra
Among the Russian and Soviet artists many great cellists. This Is N. B. Golitsyn and M. Y. wielhorsky, S. N. The Knushevitsky, D. B. Shafran, N. N. Shakhovskaya and others.
Daniil Shafran and orchestra p/D. Kabalevsky play
Concerto for cello and orchestra D. Kabalevsky