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Music dictionary in the stories. The Letter T


From ancient times to the present day people are dancing - the holidays or just a free evening, relaxed, having fun or taking part in the ceremony.

Many centuries ago the dance can be seen in rural areas, where farmers were reeling under sounds simple homemade instruments, and in the lush Palace halls, accompanied by trumpets, violas or orchestra... Most of these dances in one form or another, have survived to our time. Of course, they are very different from one another depending on the country where they were born, from the time when it happened, who and where they were performed.

For example, the allemande. Serious, deliberate. As household and court dance allemande appeared in England, France and the Netherlands in the mid-sixteenth century. Born allemande from the greeting signals trumpet sounding at a meeting of high-ranking people - princes, rulers counties and Duchies. Under these welcome sounds moved in solemn procession of courtiers, so the size of the dance even as the March - 2/4, 4/4 less. Upon entering the Suite as part of the cycle, the allemande was richly developed a solemn piece of introductory nature.

French dance courante (courante is - running current) is also of the court of origin, but very fast - this is evidenced by the name, is distinguished by complex, intricate shapes and corresponding intricate music. The size of his three-brained - 3/4 or 3/8.

Quite different Sarabande. It is a slow, stately dance, who was born in Spain. He arose from the solemn funeral ceremony, when all present at the funeral in silence walked around the coffin. The origin of the dance is reflected in its name: sacra banda Spanish - Holy procession. Affected in the Sarabande and proud Spanish character. Although Sarabande - dance-procession, size 3/4 in three-brained movement easier to perform many turns during descent on the steep spiral staircase to the tomb, to travel around the coffin.

Gigue (from the English. jig) old dance English sailors - fast, fun, casual. Music is like pouring non-stop, even triplets, as merry brook, in the amount of 3, 6, 9 or 12 eighths.

The allemande, courante, Sarabande and Gigue - in that order, accounting for contrasting combinations, they went into the old Suite.

Beautiful and very different in character dances of different Nations. Original Norwegian peasant dances. Pair "jumping dance" - Springer is highly precise rhythm, bright melody in three-brained. Guys, fun Bouncing and protopapa, are girls who walk in small steps.

Halling is a solo dance in which the young man shows the strength, quickness and agility. Halling replete with high jumps, spins, perevarivaniya in the air. His music, size 2/4 is bravely harsh nature, has elastic and whimsical rhythm.

Hangar unhurried, calm. His dance together, solemnly and ceremoniously, size 6/8. The three most common in Norway dance is widely used in the works of Grieg, who admired them, recorded their tunes.

Many wonderful dances have long been common in Poland. The most famous of them Polonaise, Krakowiak and Mazurka.

The most ancient dance the Polonaise. In the old days it was called "great", or "Hiking" dance. Its present name is French, means "Polish". At first it was danced only by men. Polonaise - ceremonial procession, in which all guests were expected to take part, open balls. Under the proud, majestic sound of music - a kind of triumphal March, but in the three-brained size, a long procession were dancing gracefully bobbing at the end of each beat of the music.

In addition to the court, there were peasant Polonaise - more quiet and smooth.

Favorite Polish dance Mazurka, rather Mazur (from the name of one of the regions of Poland's Mazovia). Folk Mazurka, with a merry, lively, sharply accented melody in three-brained size is a dance in which there is no pre-designed shapes. Her improvise partners. Noble, noble Mazurka more Shine, her PA symbolize military prowess. In the nineteenth century Mazurka became one of the most popular ballroom dances.

Krakowiak (Krakowiak - residents of the city of Krakow) is not clear dicotyledonous size. It was first danced too men only: in pairs, in which one depicted knight, and the other his squire. Then Krakowiak began to dance with the lady: she smoothly, gracefully, and he with a sharp prototypename.

All these dances are presented in the works of the great son of Poland - Chopin. Especially often he spoke to the Mazurka. Among Chopin mazurkas and shiny ball, and playful peasant, and opoetizirovaniju gentle melodies - these tiny poems. It seems the very soul of Poland is embodied in these beautiful creations.

Folk dance polka concordant many also seems to be Polish. But he belongs to another Slavic people - the Czechs. The name derives from the word pulka - half, as danced it in small steps. This is a live relaxed dance in dicots the size that dance together in a circle. Polka usually opened village ball, and heard her joyous sounds, no one could stand still. This most favorite of Czech folk dances have gained widespread popularity throughout Europe. It sounds in the Opera by the Czech composer bedřich Smetana's the bartered bride".

The fate of the Austrian dance of lendler. This is a pair of circular three-part dance got its name from the Austrian region Landll. In the early nineteenth century he moved from villages to cities in Austria and Germany. It began to dance at balls, and gradually he became well-known and beloved waltz. Now two century lives and enjoys the constant love this fun, forever young dance. In Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, the peasants on the festive party fun swirled in pairs (hence the origin of the name of the German dance walzen to roll). Gradually, the movement became more smooth, circular, leaving typical folk dance of jumping and pridobivanje. Born waltz.

At the turn of the XVIII and XIX century, the waltz has spread rapidly in many countries. First of all, the dance won the vein. Waltz composers Liner and Johann Strauss (father sounded in the Austrian capital everywhere. Waltzes as Johann Strauss II conquered not only the vein, but the whole world. Poetic, graceful, charming, free-flowing melodies, they captured the public hearing. They penetrated and operetta I. Strauss.

Starting with "Invitation to the dance Weber, waltz came in the field of symphonic music. In Russia, a magnificent example of such a symphonic waltz was the "Waltz-Fantasia Glinka.

Sounded in concerts and piano waltzes - Mephisto waltz Sheet, "sentimental waltz Tchaikovsky and, of course, numerous waltzes Chopin - the brilliant, bravura, the gentle and dreamy.

In our time, loved waltzes Prokofiev - from the ballet "Cinderella" and the Opera "War and peace", Khachaturian waltz from the music to the drama of Lermontov's "Masquerade".

In Hungarian rhapsodies of Liszt, Hungarian dances Brahms sound characteristic melodic turns, sharp rhythmic figures. They immediately recognized at the hearing. It is the intonation of Hungarian dance Czardas. The name derives from the word csarda - restaurant, tavern. Hungarian tavern has long served as a kind of club that had gathered nearby residents. In or on the ground in front of them and danced. Czardas was not a peasant or court environment, and in the city, in the early nineteenth century. Dance this bipartite and consists of two parts - a rather slow pathetic Lassana and rapid fire frisky.

In the South of Italy lies the town of Taranto. He gave the name of national Italian dance the Tarantella. Tarantella is widespread throughout the South of Italy. Especially love her in Naples and in Sicily. Fast, fun dance, performed to the accompaniment of guitar and castanets, vividly expresses the temperamental nature of southerners. Size Tarantella 3/8 or 6/8 with a characteristic, continuous and relaxed movement of the triplets.

Cheerful rhythm of attracted many composers from different countries Liszt, Chopin, Tchaikovsky, Prokofiev. Verdi used the Tarantella in the Opera "the Sicilian Vespers"and Rossini created in its rhythm the song popular.

Brightness, temperament differs and South of France - Provence - dance the Farandole. The participants dance in a ring, holding hands, then quickly, then slowly, with the accompaniment of tambourines and shrill sounding latocki-globe. Beautiful Farandole Bizet wrote to the drama by A. Daudet "arlezianka".

Very colorful dances of Spain. Hoth is the favorite dance of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, is a fast paced, three size, sharp rhythm that emphasizes the clicking of castanets. This dance, performed to the accompaniment of guitar or mandolin. Originality becomes enamoured of Glinka during his travels in Spain. His orchestral "Aragonese jota" written on authentic folk theme.

Another common Spanish dance - Bolero (from the Spanish voler - fly), more moderate, with a rhythm reminiscent of the rhythm of the Polonaise. He also accompanied by guitar and castanets, but often singing.

Russian composers Glinka, Tchaikovsky, Dargomyzhsky, Cui wrote songs in the rhythm of the Bolero. Perhaps the most famous work in this rhythm - "Bolero" by French composer Maurice Ravel.

Russian dances and fun dances, and smooth dances, often accompanied by singing. Among the dances of the peoples of the former USSR famous Ukrainian hopak and "Cossack" (there are also "Cossacks of the Kuban and Terek) - bipartite dance improvisational nature, in which the partner follows the movement of his girlfriend; fervent moldoveneasca and Moldavian dance-dance Kolo, also known in Ukraine. Kolo dance in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Poland.

's most famous folk dances acquired Georgian dance lezginka. Fast, temperamental, requiring great strength and agility from the boys, smoothness and elegance on the girl, she is a kind of competition. Music lezginka with a clear rhythm, dicotyledonous size and energetic movements attracted the attention of many composers. So, Glinka "Ruslan and Lyudmila", Rubinstein in "the Demon" put stormy, full of natural power and passion of dance.

Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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