Operetta is an Italian word (operetta) and means literally - a little Opera.
The formation of the operetta associated with France second half of the 50-ies of the last century. Operetta originated from the theatrical interludes - little ideas that went into the intermission large pieces of burning productions reviews. In France, she became a mirror of social life, denouncing the vices, making fun of the disadvantages. Best French operetta associated with the name of the composer Jacques Offenbach. It's "Orpheus in hell", "Beautiful Helen", "Blue beard" and other
Subjects operettas, seemingly so far from reality, is a mythical and fairy suddenly appeared very modern. The characters were all very familiar with them, viewers met almost every day. They only wears the costumes of gods and heroes. Orpheus in Offenbach from the mythological singer turned into a lover of music teachers, and the gods were not omnipotent, but, on the contrary, helpless and funny...
The content of operettas often was a parody. And the music? Music was always fun and exciting. Offenbach included in the operetta songs, marches, dances, quadrilles, gallops, waltzes, boleros...
In the operetta was not only singing, but also spoke. In the text often met replicas on the topic of the day, the allusions to events of concern to all events.
Johann Strauss (son)
Somewhat different was the operetta in Austria, in Vienna. It is called: Viennese operetta. You've probably heard operetta by Johann Strauss II's "die Fledermaus", "the Gypsy Baron". They are filled with wonderful melodies. They said that due to the Strauss operetta became easy, cheerful, witty, smart prideto and bright sounding musical Comedy.
The tradition of Strauss continued Hungarian composer Emmerich kálmán, who wrote such famous operettas as "Silva", "Maritza", "the circus Princess".
Many operettas, or, as we more commonly called, musical comedies, created by Soviet composers. In 20-ies in this genre worked H. Strelnikov. In his operetta "the Servant" put the film "Serf actress". In theaters of the Soviet Union were the best operetta I. Dunaevsky "Golden valley", "Free wind", "White acacia". To the genre of operetta addressed B. Alexandrov, Y. Milutin, D. Shostakovich, D. Kabalevsky, T. Khrennikov, A. Petrov, A. Eshpai, C. Basner, R. Hajiyev and many other composers.
Now, in our days, becoming increasingly widespread kind of operetta called musical. Perhaps the most famous of foreign musicals belong to Andrew Lloyd Webber is "the Phantom of the Opera, Jesus Christ superstar," "Cats," "Evita". Other famous musicals - My fair lady" F. lo, "West side story" L. Bernstein, "Notre Dame de Paris" R. Cocciante, "Chicago", J. Kander and D. Elfman based on the eponymous play by Maureen Watkins, "Mamma MIA" based on the songs of the legendary Swedish group "ABBA".