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Music dictionary in the stories. The Letter " O"


Lights went out in the hall. For conducting the remote was the conductor. The wave of a wand, and in the deserted auditorium gushed the sounds of the Overture... the show Began, in which organically intertwined singing and symphonic music, theatre, ballet, painting. Started Opera.

Opera is a genre synthetic, appeared on the basis of collaboration of various arts (Italian "opera" literally - labour, business, composition). However, their role in the Opera is not equivalent. For several centuries there is Opera. And all this time have debated about what it important - music or lyrics. Was in the history of Opera period, when its author was considered a poet, librettist and composer - a person minor - had to obeying not only the librettist, but singers who demanded winning arias in convenient places. It's time for the other extreme - when the content was stopped paying attention. Opera has become a kind concert in costume. But this is really extreme. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was finally formed the genre of Opera in this form, as we know and love today.

The most important thing in Opera is music after all. For the sake of it we go to the Opera house. Here the hero sings an Aria. At this stage nothing interesting happens: the action stops. All listen to music. Music that talks about intimate feelings and thoughts of the hero, reveals his character. Aria is a very important part of the Opera, so it is considered a separate story. It, as well as other solo Opera non - Arioso, Aria, ballad - can be compared with the monologue in dramatic play. And now let us remember that sings Ivan Susanin before his famous Aria "You will ascend, my dawn.

Smell the truth!
The death of a loved one,
I am not afraid of it.
His duty was performed by me.
Take my ashes, mother earth.

M. Glinka. Ivan Susanin's Aria from the Opera "Ivan Susanin"

Takes The Mark Reizen

Sound slow, short, separated by stops phrases. This singing, but very similar to the recitation. It is called recitative (the Latin word recitare - read aloud, pronounce loudly). The value of recitative in Opera is very high. He is the main "tool" development actions. After all, when played a complete musical non-arias, ensembles - action usually stops. Opera without recitative does not exist. But there are Opera, built entirely on the recitative.

A big role in the Opera plays the chorus. With his help composers depict paintings of national life. And in operas by M. P. Mussorgsky "Boris Godunov" and "Khovanshchina" the people, by the definition of the composer, is even the main character.

Another important component, without which it can not do Opera, this orchestra. He performed the Overture, Symphony intervals, sounds during the whole action, creates a vivid picture, reveals the feelings of the characters.

Appeared Opera almost four hundred years ago, at the end of the XVI century. First musical performance, singing on the ancient Greek myth about the battle of the God Apollo with the serpent Pitnam was set in the Italian city of Florence in 1594. Since then the Opera has come a long, difficult path. Born in Italy, she came forth, and in other European countries, Originating as a mythological work, now she is amazingly diverse subjects.

In the nineteenth century in different countries have developed national Opera school. The brightest representatives in Italy - Rossini, Verdi and Puccini, France - Meyerbeer, Gounod and Bizet in Germany, Weber and Wagner. Somewhat earlier, in the late eighteenth century, Opera gets a peak in Austria, in the works of Mozart. In Russia the Opera reached the highest peaks in the works of Glinka, Dargomyzhsky, Borodin, Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Tchaikovsky, Prokofiev and Shostakovich.

In most cases, the Opera is written on the subjects taken from the literature. "Ruslan and Ludmila" by Glinka, "the mermaid" Dargomyzhsky, "Eugene Onegin", "Mazeppa" and "the Queen of spades" by Tchaikovsky, "La Traviata", "Rigoletto" and "Otello" by Verdi, Bizet's Carmen, "the snow maiden" by Rimsky-Korsakov, "Boris Godunov" by Mussorgsky, "the Nose" and "Katerina Ismailova" D. Shostakovich, "War and peace" and "the Story of a real man" S. Prokofiev, "and Quiet flows the don" and "virgin soil upturned" I. Dzerzhinsky, "Cola breugnon" and "the Family of Taras" Kabalevsky - many operas in the world, which are based on well-known novels, stories, dramatic play...

The score finished Opera is transmitted to the theatre. Working on it a conductor, his party learn soloists and choir Director provides the setting, the artists paint the scenery. Only in the common work of all these people occur Opera performance.

Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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