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Music dictionary in the stories. Letter From

OVERTURE

Did you know that the famous Overture to the Opera "the Barber of Seville" by Rossini wrote much earlier, when haven't thought about writing an Opera on immortal Beaumarchais ' Comedy? He intended it for the Opera "the Aurelian in Palmyra". But this Opera failed, and soon after the premiere of her no one remembered. Then the composer moved the Overture to one of the following of his operas, "Elizabeth, Queen of England". And only a year later, in 1816, it was performed before the beginning of the Barber of Seville, with whom and gained worldwide fame.

J. Rossini. Overture to the Opera "the Barber of Seville"
Takes the NBC Symphony orchestra p/Arturo Toscanini

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Now this story is hard to imagine, but in those days it was in the order of things. The Overture was not made sure to link to the content of the Opera. In the XVII century Opera Overture generally represented something like orchestral signal: it sounded like a call to attention, warning the audience that you want to gather in the hall, as soon begins the action of the Opera. During the performance of the Overture went in, sat down, not afraid to make noise.

By the way, the word Overture in French means - the beginning of the opening. Of course, the beautiful Overture Rossini served not to sit under their sounds. Them and listened with pleasure. But their main goal was just to create a festive, upbeat mood of the audience, to draw their attention to the portal scene. However, another predecessor Rossini, the great Opera reformer Glitch talked about the fact that the Overture to "warn listeners about the nature of upcoming activities and to inform them about the content of the Opera. For this purpose it was necessary to build the Overture musical themes, which were further meeting would be in the Opera. And not just met, but would play an important role in her drama.

Remember the Overture to "Ruslan and Ludmila" by Glinka. There's no melody, which is then not used in the Opera. First, joyful and strong sounds in the final, second - melodious rave - arias Ruslan, when he refers to Lyudmila. And strange frightening chords are heard in the scene of the abduction Lyudmila evil Carla Chernomor. The music becomes ominous, increasing the voltage of the struggle. But now, finally, returns joyful, triumphant melody. The Overture ends.

M. Glinka. Overture to the Opera 'Ruslan and Lyudmila'
Takes the orchestra of the Bolshoi theatre of the USSR, conductor Evgeny Svetlanov

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What are we told her music? That the characters of the Opera stand adversity, but in the end good and the light will triumph over the forces of evil. Turned out that the Overture very briefly transferred the content of the Opera.

Overtures are not only in operas. They opened ballets, operettas, sometimes dramatic plays and movies. The movie "Children of captain Grant" created a long time ago, and you might not have seen it. And here's a beautiful Overture Dunaevsky romantic, excited, alive transmitting youthful aspiration into the unknown, often heard in concerts.

I. Dunaevsky. Overture to the film "the Children of captain Grant"

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In the XIX century the Overture started calling and one-movement work for orchestra. Spanish Overture Glinka "Aragonese jota" and "Night in Madrid" is a colorful Symphony software plays based on authentic Spanish melodies. The composer wrote them under the impression his travels in Spain. His symphonic work "Romeo and Juliet Tchaikovsky called Overture-fantasy.

We can assume that the beginning of this genre - independent symphonic Overture - put Beethoven. However, symphonic overtures as such he did not write, but his overtures to the drams "Egmont" and "Coriolanus," and the Overture to the Opera "Fidelio", which has a separate title - "Leonora", were heard separately from performances, for which it was intended.

Ludwig van Beethoven. Overture to the drama I. Goethe's "Egmont". Op.84
Performed by the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra conductor Herbert von Karajan

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And Overture Mendelssohn's "Midsummer night's Dream" was written as an independent piece, inspired by Shakespeare's play, and only many years later appeared the music to the entire Comedy. And then many composers began to write overtures that are not associated with stage plays. But the hallmark of the Overture left the program name, its at least indirect communication with any particular plot. Over the last hundred years created overtures of a plan, such as "Festive Overture Glazunov, "Festive Overture" by Shostakovich.


Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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