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Music dictionary in the stories. The Letter M

The MELISMAS

Saw you ever the portraits of the XVIII century? Ladies in wide skirts firmach - with lots of frills, ruffles and bows, powdered wigs, permed, decorated with flowers and jewels. Cavaliers embroidered in gold ornaments and camisoles, shirts lush lace jabot, in short trousers with bows, silk stockings and shoes with ornate buckles. Everywhere decoration, decoration... Bouquets of flowers, lace, ribbons, jewels.

Thomas Gainsborough. Lady in blue, or the portrait of the Duchess de Beaufort, the late 1770-H.
Thomas Gainsborough.
Lady in blue, or the portrait of the Duchess de Beaufort
the late 1770-X.

Fashion jewelry existed not only in clothes. It was extended to the art. Music plays also appeared decoration - the melismas. The Greek word "melisma" means song, melody. First name excerpts melodies played on one syllable of text - of course, in those cases, when it accounted for more than one note.

From the XVII century this name was rooted in instrumental music for melodic momentum established forms, representing the decoration of the main melody. The speed these are not to be issued notes, and show special icons. Often in music meets grace notes (in German Vorschlag - previous shot). This ornament is indicated by a tiny note, written before that to which it refers.

Grace notes
Grace notes

Often found in the music of different composers trills. This name comes from the Italian trillare - to rattle, vibrate. Recorded the sound of the letters tr and the wavy line behind them, and this means that the note over which there is such a sign, and its upper neighbor as soon as possible to alternate so much time, what is the duration of the specified note.

Trill
Trill

There are other types of melismas:

- gruppetto:

Grupetto
Grupetto

- mordenti - simple, double and crossed:

Simple mordent
Simple mordent

Double mordent
Double mordent

Crossed mordent
Crossed mordent


Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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