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Music dictionary in the stories. The Letter L

LAD

Good is a Slavic word, lad. Well, when it goes well, when the family way, when the dress is well stitched... a Lot can bring examples from this root, and all the words will be bright, friendly. No wonder the lad is harmony, peace, harmony and order.

But what all these concepts can have for music? It turns out that the most direct. Music is an art, in which the sounds are harmonious, coherent, orderly manner. Try to press the keys of a piano or pull guitar strings at random: no music will not work!

However, the word harmony - not just the harmony and agreement. This is a special term that refers to the relationship of sounds among themselves, their consistency, consistency. Remember any song: a song, a dance, an excerpt from some instrumental compositions. If you start to sing, you will find that in any random place I can't stop. And not just because, for example, did not "fit" all the words or not over the movement of the dance. No: in fact, the sounds, combined with each other, are perceived lo-different. Some view it as sustainable. They can stay longer at all to finish the movement. The composer and ends with a verse, a Chapter, or all the instrumental piece. On the other stop not: they evoke the feeling of incompleteness and require movement on to a stable, to the reference sound.

The Association of sounds with different height and gravitating to each other, is called a fret. The main sound Lada is the most stable, which tend all the rest, is called the tonic. A chord of three sounds, the bottom of which the tonic is called the tonic triad.

Okay, that is a similar Association of the sounds are different. Most common in European music frets, which are called major and minor. At the heart of major tonic triad, in which the first, below, is called a major third (see what is written on the third story "Interval"), and above it a small. Major happens if you came up to the piano, hit consistently all white keys from the notes up to the next note up, placed an octave higher. This continuous sounding of the notes within the octave is called the range. What you played, and - gamma in C major. You can play a major scale from any other sound, only in some places white key to have to replace the black. Because the construction of the schemes subject to certain regularities. So in all major schemes taken after two consecutive tones followed by a semitone, then there are three colors in a row and again semitone, minor scale sounds alternate otherwise: tone, semitone, two tone, semitone, two tone. When gamma is always called by her first sound.

What is the difference between colors and tonality? Gamma can be ascending and descending, i.e. the sounds of it will go up or down. But they are certainly consistently, without jumps; they move from step to step (remember this comparison - it we still need). And the tone... Suppose you sing the song at a school lesson. The song ended, and the teacher says:

- Well, in d major you got (d major means, the most sustainable, the basic sound of the song is in d, and in the accompaniment of the most stable chord on which the song ended, the d-major chord). Now let's try to sing it a little higher.

"Tunes up": a few chords in e major, that you become accustomed to the sound, and you sing the song in a different key. The melody is the same, as if nothing has changed, but the song sounds a tone higher than before. And the main stable sound songs - now not re, and mi. And so ended all mi-major chord.

So, the key is the height of the frets; the height on which it is located. Sometimes it is called the harmonic key. The name of the key is obtained, when the mode definition add the name of the main audio - tonic - up to major, e-flat major, g minor, f-sharp minor...

Here we have the name of another Lada - minor. This is also a very common way of European music. It is based on the minor triad, in which the third are: small bottom, and above it a large. Minor happens when you play in a row on white keys all sounds from La to La.

The sounds are called steps and numbered in Roman numerals in order from bottom to top: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII. The root is the first step.

Major and minor are the most famous, the most common of the frets. But there are also many others. They are common in folk music, is increasingly being used in modern professional music. There harmonies are artificial, created by composers. For example, Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka invented alamony way. It is called so because between all sound the distance of a tone. It sounds strange, unusual. Glinka came up with the idea to pass a state of torpor, something fantastic and lifeless.

Many frets as the major and the minor consists of seven steps, but there are frets and a different number of sounds. So in talatona - six degrees. There is a group of keys, called a pentatonic (Greek pente - five, tonos - tone) - this is a Lada pachistopelma. There are frets and with a different number of stages.


Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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