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Music dictionary in the stories. The Letter D

JAZZ

Introduced in the beginning of XX century the word jazz came to mean a type new, then picked up the first music and the orchestra, which this music was performed. What is this music and how it appeared?

Jazz originated in the United States among the oppressed, disenfranchised black population, among the descendants of black slaves, once forcibly taken away from their homeland.

In the early seventeenth century arrived in America first slave ships with live load. It quickly sold out rich American South, which began to use slave labor to work on their plantations. Displaced, separated from their relatives, isremovable from overwork, black slaves found comfort in music.

Negroes amazing music. Especially subtle and sophisticated their sense of rhythm. In the rare hours of leisure Negroes sang, accompanying himself by clapping hands, blows through the empty boxes, cans - anything that was at hand.

At first it was a real African music. That slaves brought from their homeland. But as the years passed, decades. In memory of generations erased memories of the music of the country of their ancestors. There was only a natural thirst for music, thirst movements to the music, a sense of rhythm and temperament. The hearing was perceived that sounded around music white. A. those were singing mostly Christian religious hymns. And blacks also began to sing them. But to sing in their own way, putting them all my pain, all passionate hope for a better life even beyond the grave. Thus arose the spirituals spirituals.

And at the end of the nineteenth century appeared and. other songs-complaints protest song. They came to be called the Blues. The Blues are said about poverty, hard labor, disappointed hopes. Performers of the Blues is usually accompanied himself on some makeshift tool. For example, adapted the fretboard and strings to the old mailbox. Only later they were able to buy a real guitar. Loved the blacks to play in orchestras, but the tools had to reinvent themselves. In case there were combs wrapped in tissue paper, wire, strung on a stick attached to it dried pumpkin instead of the housing, a washing Board.

After the civil war 1861-1865 in the United States were dissolved brass bands of military units. The remaining tools were in the junk shops where they sold for a pittance. From there the Negroes, was finally able to get a real musical instruments. Appeared everywhere Negro brass bands. Coal miners, masons, carpenters, hawkers in my spare time, I collect and play for your own pleasure. Played on any occasion: holidays, weddings, picnics, funerals.

Black musicians played marches, dances. Played, imitating the manner of execution of spiritual and Blues - their national vocal music. Their trumpets, clarinets, trombones reproduce the peculiarities of Negro singing, his rhythmic freedom. Music they didn't know; music school white were closed to them. Played by ear, learning from experienced musicians, listening to their advice, adopting their methods. Just by ear wrote.

In the result of the migration of the Negro vocal music and black rhythm in the instrumental field was born a new orchestral music - jazz.

The main features of jazz is improvisation and freedom of rhythm, breathing melodies. The musicians of the jazz should be able to improvise or collectively, either solo against the background srepetirovannoy accompaniment.

What is jazz improvisation. An excerpt from the film "We are from jazz"

As for jazz rhythm (he termed swing from English swing - swing), one of American jazz musicians wrote of him: "This feeling inspired rhythm, which gives musicians a sense of lightness and freedom of improvisation and gives the impression of irrepressible motion of the entire orchestra forward with continuously increasing velocity, although the actual rate remains unchanged".

Since its emergence in the South American city of new Orleans jazz has managed to go a long way. It spread first in America and then worldwide. He ceased to be art Negroes: very soon in jazz came white musicians. The names of the great masters of jazz known to all. This Is Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, Glen Miller. This singer Ella Fitzgerald and Bessie Smith.

Jazz greats
Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
Benny Goodman
Benny Goodman
Glen Miller
Glen Miller
Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith

Music jazz influenced symphonic and Opera. American composer George Gershwin wrote Rhapsody in Blues" for piano and orchestra, using elements of jazz in his Opera "Porgy and Bess".

The ones we have in the country. The first of them appeared in the twenties. It was a theatrical jazz orchestra under the direction of Leonid Utesov. For many years associated with his artistic career composer Dunaevsky. Perhaps you've heard this orchestra: he sounds cheerful, still enjoying the success of the film "Jolly fellows".

Jazz orchestra of Leonid Utesov the film "Jolly fellows"

Unlike Symphony orchestra in the jazz do not have a permanent structure. Jazz is always an ensemble of soloists. And even if by chance the composition of two jazz bands coincide, still exactly the same, they can not be, because in the one case, the best soloist will be, for example, the trumpeter, and the other will be some other musician.


Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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