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Music dictionary in the stories. The Letter B


"Pan - according to the beliefs of the ancient Greeks the God of the forests and groves, protector of herds and shepherds were proud to play the flute. He once called himself Apollo (God of art and light) on the competition. It was on the slopes of mount Tmol, the judge was the God of the mountain. In a purple cloak, with gold cithara in hand and a Laurel wreath was Apollo to a contest. Pan first started the contest. Sounded simple sound of his pastoral flute, gently they raced down the slopes of Tola. When frozen echoes of his pipes, Apollo struck the Golden strings of your cipher. Poured majestic sounds divine music. All standing around like possessed, listened to the music of Apollo. Solemnly rattled Golden strings cipher, all nature was deep in silence, and the silence of the wide wave flowed melody, full of wondrous beauty. The last notes died down a cipher. God of mount Tmol awarded to Apollo victory. All praise the great God-kifared... And saddened pan, defeated by Apollo, went deeper into the forest..."

So says an ancient Greek myth. The story is this - how great is the power of art, that among all musical instruments the most beautiful and expressive and exciting sound have a string...

Cittern - one of the ancestors of modern stringed instruments appeared a long time ago from a hunting bow. Pulling the string, some hunter at the dawn of mankind heard a pleasant slow fading sound. Then was born the first stringed instrument.

Ancient Greek cithara
Ancient Greek cithara

As the years passed, decades. To one string-the string were added others. They were made in different lengths and thickness, tightened with different strengths, and depending on this and sounded different: one above, the other below.

Then people noticed that if strings not to pull on the bow string, and hollow, that is empty inside the box, the sound will be more beautiful. The box began to make various shapes and sizes, and strings to it was attached differently. And have different tools, each with their own special voice - lute, theorbo, guitar, monochord, mandolin, psaltery, dulcimer... the Way the game they also produced various. Some played with fingers (guitar) or a special plate mediator, which scraped the strings (mandolin). On the other using a hammer or sticks, which struck the strings. This way the game remained cymbals and... piano.

The young man playing the cithara. Figure Greek vases of the fifth century B.C.
The young man playing the cithara.
Figure Greek vases, V century BC

But some of the ancient musicians thought: pinch or punch a short sound. Can you make that noise was coming? And appeared the bow - stick with stretched her bundle of horsehair, which were on strings. When this string is sounded long, as long as the bow touched her. So there was a whole group of instruments - stringed bow.

To the XV century was a whole family of stringed instruments violas. They were made large and small. Depending on size they were called treble, Alto, tenor, great bass, contributiva. And the sound from them, in accordance with the name of each was higher or lower. He was also distinguished by the soft, soft matte tone, but the weak force. All viola had a case with a clearly expressed "waist" and with sloping shoulders. The performers kept them upright on your lap or between your knees.


As a professional instrument, the violin emerged in the late XV century. Then master different countries have improved it. The new instrument had a stronger sound, and much more brilliant potential. And soon the violin has supplanted its predecessors. At the end of the XVI century there was a great violin so-called Cremona school. Violin master collection Amati, Guarneri and Stradivari, who lived in the Italian city of Cremona and from generation to generation pass on the secrets of his skill, was famous for its tools. And still their violin unsurpassed quality. Valued they are very expensive in our country is protected as national heritage. Most of them are located in the state collection. Play them the best violinists in the country.

Modern stringed instruments - violin and appeared behind her viola, cello and double bass, which resemble each other and differ mainly in size. Their shape was derived from the shape of the viola, but a more elegant and well thought-out. The main difference - round "shoulders". Only bass they are sloping; otherwise the contractor is hard to bend the strings.

During the game different from the bow hold different: violin and viola - horizontally, resting on his shoulder and holding his chin. Cello and double bass - upright, resting against a floor of a pointed metal stand.

Tune all the strings and bow are very similar to each other, although, of course, is not the same. The height of sounds depends on the case and the length of the stretched strings on it, then the tools are very different from one another. The lowest note of a giant-double bass on two and a half octaves below the lowest note of a violin (respectively mi contra and salt small octave).

String stringed instruments play a major role in the orchestra. This is the most important and the most numerous group of instruments. And a stringed perform as a solo, for the most part Amateur instruments. This applies particularly to the guitar, one of the most common, most popular instruments in the world.

Such a stringed like domra, balalaika, gusli part of the orchestra of folk instruments. By analogy with the family of stringed instruments, domra and balalaika also began to produce different sizes. Now in the orchestras sound of the balalaika Piccolo, prima, Secunda, Alto, bass and contrabass, the group never from Piccolo to contrabass. In some cases, when required by concept art, composers introduce stringed instruments in a Symphony orchestra.

Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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Alsu Saifuddin
2013-10-18 21:30:53
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