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Music dictionary in the stories. The Letter " O"

ORCHESTRA

In Ancient Greece orchestras (orchestra) was the name of the place in front of the stage, which at the time of submission of tragedies fit fine

Much later, during the heyday of musical art in Europe, the orchestra became known as large ensembles of musicians, together performing instrumental music. In these ensembles participated variety of tools.

The orchestra for a long time was not constant. As a rule, there were bands from the rich nobles. It is from the wealth and taste of the owner depended on the number of musicians and the choice of instruments.

Gradually in musical practice has developed certain types orchestra. The most complete and perfect sounding among them - symphonic orchestra. Have you heard, of course, and wind and pop bands, orchestras of Russian folk instruments.

In our time, perhaps, it is difficult to find a person who'd never heard a Symphony orchestra. Symphony orchestra performs Symphony and suites, symphonic poems and fantasies, sometimes accompanies the action in the movie, participates in the performance of operas and oratorios, competes with instrumental soloists in concerts.

Many different tools included in the Symphony orchestra. Some play using the bow, leading him on a string. In others you need to blow to make a sound. There are tools, which you need to hit. That's settled key groups that share all instruments: stringed stringed, brass - wood and brass, and percussion. Sometimes the orchestra included the harp, piano, organ.

If you look at a photograph or diagram of the Symphony orchestra, you will realize that sitting in the orchestra, not as who I wanted, and in a strict order. Before all orchestras performers sat the same way: to the left ahead of the first violin (the most important instruments in the orchestra, performing beautiful, expressive melodies, they are located on the "home place", right-to - second, second violins, violas, in the center - cello, woodwinds. Now there are several options for planting orchestra, depending on the will of the conductor, the characteristics of the executable. But one thing remains constant: the tools are located in groups - all brass (French horn, trumpet, trombone and tuba) near each other, all wood (flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons) together, string and bow instruments (violins, violas, cellos and contrabasses) also grouped separately.

The arrangement of the instruments simfonicheskogo orchestra

String instruments in the orchestra a lot. First violins is from ten to eighteen, the second - from eight to sixteen, violas from six to fourteen, cellos, six to twelve, basses from four to eight. This is simple: the sound of stringed instruments is the weakest. Compare, for example, the sound of the violin and trombone: if they will play at the same time, the violin will not be heard, as pompous tried to play violin. For the balance of sonority and required large orchestra string section. So the same string and are always the closest instrument to the conductor, to the audience.

With brass instruments, the situation is different. Wood in the orchestra there are two or three main or one more, called species (depending on the composition of the orchestra is called double or triple): this is a Piccolo (small flute), a kind of oboe - English horn, bass clarinet and Contrabassoon. Of brass instruments in the orchestra usually four French horns, two trumpets, three trombones and one tuba. However, the number of brass may be more.

Strike group, the orchestra has no permanent staff. It in every case enabled those tools that appear in the score of the executable. Only timpani are indispensable member of each concert.

Brass bands are designed primarily not for concerts indoors. They accompany processions, marches, and during the festivities sound stages, located outdoors on the squares, in parks and gardens. The sonority of them particularly powerful and bright. The main instruments of the brass band brass: cornet, trumpet, horn, trombone. There woodwinds - flutes and clarinets, and in large orchestras still oboes and bassoons and percussion - drums, timpani, cymbals.

The arrangement of the instruments of the brass band
Layout brass band:
1-clarinets; 2 flutes, 3 oboes; 4 - bassoons; 5 - Bassets; 6 - saxophones; 7 - French horn; 8 - clarinets; 9 - violas;
10 - tenors; 11 - baritones; 12 - bass; 13 - pipe; 14 - trombones; 15 - contrabasses; 16 - timpani; 17 - drums

There are works written specifically for brass band, but often they are executed symphonic works, pereorientirovanie for brass composition. There are writings in which, along with a Symphony orchestra, provides for the participation of the brass, as in the Overture Tchaikovsky's "1812".

P. I. Tchaikovsky. Festive Overture "1812"
Performed by the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra conductor Herbert von Karajan)
and the Choir of the Don Cossacks under the leadership of Serge Jaroff.
Recorded in 1967.

A special kind of brass band, the so-called "gang" (the Italian word banda means detachment). This ensemble of brass, woodwind and percussion instruments, which sometimes is introduced in addition to the Symphony orchestra in Opera performances. He appears on the scene when there is some kind of ceremony or moving procession.

In 1887, a famous musician, an enthusiast for the study of Russian folk art and folk instruments centuries Andreev organized "Amateurs balalaika". The first concert of this group took place in 1888. Soon acquired a European reputation, the ensemble began to expand. In addition to watching it includes domra, gusli and other ancient instruments. There are "Russian orchestra" - so he began to be called. After the great October socialist revolution, it was renamed in the Orchestra of Russian folk instruments named C. C. Andreeva, appeared and many other similar groups. The main role is in stringed instruments (read about them in the story "Stringed instruments"), there is a button accordions, flutes and other wind instruments, a large group of percussion.

The arrangement of the instruments of the orchestra of Russian folk instruments
The layout of the orchestra of Russian folk instruments:
1 - dombra viola; 2 - dombra bass; 3 - balalaika; 4 - bass balalaika; 5-flute; 6 - clarinets;
7 - horns; 8 - bayans; 9 - timpani; 10 - xylophone; 11 - tambourine; 12-drums; 13 - harp

The music for these bands wrote Soviet composers. They also play transcriptions of classical pieces and folk songs. Nowadays folk instruments orchestras exist in many Soviet republics and countries. Of course, they are very different: in Ukraine include Pandora, in Lithuania - old kankles, Caucasian orchestras play the zurna...

Pop bands most diverse and sizes - from large, similar to the Symphony, such as, for example, orchestras Union and the Leningrad radio and television, to very small, like ensembles. Pop bands are often included saxophones, Hawaiian guitar, a lot of drums.

Layout orchestra
Layout orchestra:
1 - violin; 2 - bass; 3 - clarinets; 4 - saxophones; 5 - French horn; 6 - trombones;
7 - pipe; 8 - tube; 9 - drums; 10 - piano; 11 - harp; 12 - accordions; 13 - organal

Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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