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Music dictionary in the stories. The Letter " O"


The biggest of all musical instruments, the organ. Play it like a piano, pressing the keys. But, unlike the piano, the organ is not a string, and brass instrument and a relative he is not keyboard instruments, and a little flute.

In ancient times, when a complex musical instruments have not been, several reed pipes of various sizes began to merge together. The tool that the ancient Greeks called the pan flute. It was believed that invented it the God of the forests and groves pan.

Pan Flute
Pan Flute

On one tune to play is easy: it needs a little air. But to play several at once is much more difficult - not short of breath. Therefore, already in ancient times people were looking for a mechanism that replaces the human breath. This mechanism is found: air-blast steel bellows, the same as those which the Smiths had lit the fire in the furnace. In the second century BC in Alexandria invented the hydraulic organ. In it the air is blowing not fur, and water pressure. So he did more evenly, and the sound was better - smoother and more beautiful.

Ancient body
Organist, playing on the ancient body - positive.
The picture thumbnails from 1270

Centuries went by, the instrument was improved. There were so-called performing remote or performing style. Several keyboards, arranged one above the other, and the bottom of a huge keys foot pedal, which were extracted from the lowest sounds.

Of course, long been forgotten reed pipes - the panflute. The organ sounded metal pipes, and their number reached many thousands. It is clear that if each pipe corresponded to the key, the tool with thousands of keys would be impossible to play. So over the keyboards did register knobs or buttons. Each key correspond to several tens, or even hundreds of pipes produce sounds the same height, but different timbre. You can enable and disable register handles, and then, at the request of composer and performer, sound body becomes like a flute, oboe or other tools; it can simulate even the birds singing.

The body of the Great hall of the Moscow Conservatory
The body of the Great hall of the Moscow Conservatory

In the Middle ages, the authorities became interested in the Church. All Catholic cathedrals and large churches were built bodies. Their solemn and powerful sound could not be better suited to the architecture of cathedrals with leaving up lines, high arches. World's best musicians served as Church organists. A lot of great music was written for this instrument by different composers, including Bach.

Of course, not all music is created for organ, was a cult associated with the Church. It was composed for him and the so-called "secular" work.

In Russia the body was only a secular instrument, as in the Orthodox Church, unlike the Catholic, it never set. Since the XVIII century composers include the body in the oratorio. And in the XIX century it appeared in the Opera. Usually this was due to the stage situation - if the action took place in the temple or around it. Tchaikovsky, for example, took the body in the Opera "the maid of Orleans" in the scene of the solemn coronation of Charles VII. We hear the organ in one of the scenes from Gounod's "Faust" (the scene in the Cathedral). But Rimsky-Korsakov Opera "Sadko" instructed the body to accompany the song Startsida mighty car-warrior, which interrupts the dance of the Sea king. Verdi's Opera "Otello" with the help of body imitates the sound of the sea storms.

Sometimes the body is included in the score symphonic works. With his participation fulfilled the Third Symphony by Saint-Saens, the Poem of ecstasy and Prometheus Scriabin. In the Symphony "Manfred" by Tchaikovsky, too, can hear the organ, although the composer did not foresee this. He wrote the party harmonium that there body is often replaces.

Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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2014-05-22 12:04:27
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