Perhaps any student at least once happened to hear a symphonic tale Prokofiev's "Peter and the wolf" about how pioneer Peter caught a wolf. Remember, what actors? Funny, perevalivaya from side to side, Duck, funny Bird, grumpy Grandpa, ferocious Wolf... All of them we seem to see so clearly draws the music of fairy tale characters. More than that: in the text, which is read by the actor, could say, for example, about the bird that winds the nose of the wolf, and we hear that she's here... Why? Because it sounds characterizes her music is fast passages little flute-Piccolo. Petya composer paints a beautiful, responsive melody that is similar to the pioneer marsh, grandfather - bass growling bassoon, Wolf - terrible howling horns...
All characters Prokofiev's musical tale characterized by the keynotes. The leitmotif of the German word (Leitmotiv), literally leading motive. The so-called bright, well-memorable musical theme - more melody, but it could be a short, short sound, a melody, and the chord sequence that outlines some way or dramatic situation.
The leitmotifs are used in large musical works - operas, ballets, symphonic compositions, and appear repeatedly on their length, sometimes in a modified, but always recognizable form.
Loved using the leitmotifs of the German composer Richard Wagner. Especially a lot of them in his tetralogy der Ring des Nibelungen, where the motifs are characterized by not only the characters, but also their feelings, and even individual items, such as a treasured sword, a gold ring, symbolizing the power over the world, eager horn young hero Siegfried.
Used keynote and Russian composers. In the Opera "the snow maiden" by Rimsky-Korsakov gives keynotes and the daughter of Spring and Frost, and the beauty of Spring, and the Goblin the personification of the wild, frightening fantastic powers. In "Swan lake" by Tchaikovsky sounds the keynote of the swans. And remember Opera Glinka's Ivan Susanin"? The composer characterizes poles melodies and rhythms of their national dances of the Polonaise, Krakowiak, mazurkas. In the future, for the following acts of the Opera, Mazurka acquires the value of the leitmotif. First, in the second act, in the castle of king Sigismund, it sounds solemnly and loudly. In the next act, in the house Susanin, where the invaders rush to get old peasant lead them to Moscow, melody Mazurka sounds militant and hostile. Finally, in the fourth act, in the deep forest, impassable thicket, which has got the poles Susanin, Mazurka "flagged", has lost its luster, its arrogance and belligerence. It sounds confused, anxious, powerless rage.