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Music dictionary in the stories. Letter To

CONSERVATORY

In 1537 in Naples opened a shelter for orphans and homeless. The kids fed, clothed, and taught various crafts, and singing: numerous temples Italy took a lot of singers for the choir. This institution, which in Russian is called shelter, Italian was determined by the word conservatorio from Latin conservare - to protect, preserve. During the XVI and XVII centuries in Italy it was discovered many such shelters. Gradually the teaching of music has become the major place, and the name of the Conservatory, having lost its original meaning, has come to mean musical institution.

Our country's first Conservatory was opened in 1862 in St. Petersburg. Its founder was Anton Rubinstein is an excellent composer and pianist, outstanding tireless promoter of music culture, musical knowledge.

St. Petersburg state Conservatory. N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov
St. Petersburg state Conservatory. N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov

One of the first students of the St. Petersburg Conservatory was Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. At the end of it he was invited as a Professor in founded in 1866 Moscow Conservatory. Both the oldest musical institutions gave Russia a lot of excellent musicians of different specialties.

Before the great October socialist revolution at the Conservatory took students of different ages. Next to a bearded young people could meet boys in short pants, girls with pigtails. For example, one course at the beginning of XX century studied brilliantly gifted boy Sergei Prokofiev and managed to get specialty military engineer Nikolai Yakovlevich Myaskovsky, subsequently one of the largest Soviet composers-symphonists. For admission to the Conservatory then required musical talent and, of course, a certain level of professional training. Adult students (students they did not call) is often combined music classes with University education or service. For younger existed the so-called science classes, in which students received General education, about the same, what gave gymnasium. This situation continued for some time after the revolution. So, Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich entered the Conservatory in 1919, when he was only thirteen years old.

However, already in the mid 20-ies of the system of education at the conservatories has changed. Since then and until now the Conservatory musical institution of higher education, where they only accept those who have secondary education. Release Conservatory musicians-instrumentalists, singers, conductors, and composers and musicologists. The study period in any of the faculties - five years. The most gifted students, who have an inclination for scientific and creative activity, remain in graduate school, which is available at several of the largest conservatories. And in our country - 13.


Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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