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Music dictionary in the stories. The Letter F

FLUTE

This is one of the oldest wind instruments. Archeologists find image flutists on the frescoes of Ancient Egypt and Greece.

Composer and flutist Jacques Atterer
The musician playing the double flute.
Painting on a Greek vase (V century BC)

Arising out of the reed pipes, flute initially was a simple wooden tube with holes. For many centuries it was improved, until he acquired a modern look.

Flute
Modern flute

Before the flute was longitudinal, and kept her upright. Then came the so-called transverse flute, which the musician holds horizontally. This type of flute, advanced in 1832, the German master So the Bema, gradually replaced the longitudinal and now all the orchestras is exactly transverse flute.

Composer and flutist Jacques Atterer
French composer and flutist Jacques Atterer (XVIII century)
plays the transverse flute

The range of her from before the first until the fourth octave, the lowercase deaf, soft, middle and part of the top is very beautiful, have a gentle and melodious voice; the highest sounds shrill, whistling.

In the instrumental ensembles flute participated in the XV century. Composers were attracted by its melodious sound, and later, when the tool has progressed - rich virtuoso possibilities.

The flutes are the most difficult passages. Often it becomes a kind of competition with coloratura soprano, which partly resembles and his voice. Remember the "snow maiden" by Rimsky-Korsakov: coloratura passages of the daughter of Frost in the beginning of the Opera echo "patterned" tunes of the flute.

One used in the orchestra varieties of this instrument - flute Piccolo (piccolo - Italian for "little"). It is two times less than the ordinary flute and sounds an octave higher.

Flute Piccolo
Flute Piccolo

Her sharp whistle cuts through the sound of the whole orchestra. Before the Piccolo flute was used only in those musical episodes in which it was required to portray the battle, the storm, the whistling wind. Now she often charge and melodic parts. In Rimsky-Korsakov's "the Tale of Tsar Saltan" Piccolo plays the theme squirrels gnawing Golden nut. In the first act of Bizet's Opera "Carmen" two flute Piccolo accompanied by a choir of boys, marching briskly followed by soldiers.


Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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