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Music dictionary in the stories. Letter


Queen orchestra - violin - the most common stringed bow instrument. "She's in the music is as necessary a tool as in human being daily bread", he talked about the musicians in the XVII century. Violin made in many countries of the world, but the best violin master lived in the Italian town of Cremona. Violin made of Cremona masters of the XVI-XVIII centuries Amati, Guarneri and Stradivari, still considered unsurpassed. Treasured Italians on their skill. They were able to make the sound of violins especially melodious and tender, similar to the human voice. The famous Italian violins have survived to our time not so much, but they are all on a strict accounting. Play them the best musicians in the world.


Violin case very elegant: with smooth curves, thin "waist". On the upper deck of the beautiful, in the form f cutouts, which are called Echis. And the size and shape of the enclosure, and all the smallest details, even the quality of the varnish, with which it is covered, carefully thought out. Because everything affects the sound capricious instrument. The violin case is attached to the neck that ends in a curl. Before you curl in the groove holes, into which are inserted pins. They pull strings with the other hand firmly seated in Podravka. In the middle of the body, approximately between Atami, on two legs should stand. Through it pass strings. Four of them. They are called those sounds that are configured: mi, La, re, Sol or Basok, counting from the high strings. The overall range of the violin, from low salt to salt the fourth octave. Violinist modulates the pitch, pressing the string to the fretboard fingers of the left hand. It was convenient to play, he puts his violin on his shoulder and holds it on the chin. In his right hand he holds a bow, which leads to the strings. The bow is also an important item. From it largely depends on the character of the sound. Is the bow of the stick or shaft, on the lower end of which is attached kolodočkoj. It serves for tensioning the hair, which on the other hand attached to the canes still. If we hook the string with your finger, and then release it, the sound will quickly fade. The bow can lead wire continuously for a long time, and the sound will reach constantly. Therefore, the violin is very melodious. It is possible to perform long flowing melodies, as they sometimes say, "in one breath", that is, without interrupting their breaks or cesarani.

The device violin
The device violin

They say that violin sings. And the truth is, its sound like the human voice quivering. But she can not only sing. There are many different ways, so-called strokes, which are used while playing the violin. You can play not on one but on two adjacent strings at once. Then the sound of two songs. More than two sounds at the same time you can't eject because the strings are not flat, but rounded on the stand. However, violinists play the chords of three or four notes in a special reception - arpeggiato, taking sounds not simultaneously, but one after the other, quickly sliding down the strings with a bow.

In the orchestra, violin - master tools. They charge responsible episodes. Remember how often in orchestral pieces can be heard singing violins; sometimes wide and calm, sometimes throbbing, and sometimes dramatically intense. And polka pizzicato brothers Johann and Joseph Strauss and some other works of violin used quite unusual: artists play on them with the bow, and by pinching pastry edges together strings with your fingers, as percussion instruments. This technique is called pizzicato.

I. Strauss (father), And Strauss (son). Polka pizzicato

Very widespread violin as a solo instrument. For it created a variety of works from virtuoso Paganini etudes lyrical plays Prokofiev. Many composers, written concertos for violin and orchestra. You've probably heard the concerts of Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Glazunov, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Khachaturian.

Music history knows the names of famous violinists. Legends surrounded the name of the genius of Paganini. He was accused of witchcraft, because in those days, when he lived in the first half of the nineteenth century, did not believe that an ordinary man himself, without the aid of magic power, can so perfectly to play the violin.

Niccolo Paganini
Niccolo Paganini

Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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