Wooden wind instrument oboe, or its ancestor, appeared in ancient times. Even in India in the XII - VII centuries BC was known wind instrument GTC. Its Asian cousin zurna, which is considered the direct predecessor of the oboe, and is now widely distributed in Middle Asia and the Caucasus.
Greek avlos, images of which you can see at the Museum of ancient vases and without whom was not in Ancient Greece, no festival or feast, is also the ancestor of the oboe, as well, and the old (but much younger than avlos) Russian pipe.
In Europe oboe came from the Middle East, and in the seventeenth century became a permanent member of the Opera orchestra.
The range of the oboe - from si, and some instruments in b flat, up to small octave f the third octave. Like other wooden instruments, the timbre of the oboe in different registers differently. Lower sounds pretty rough and cutting; medium saturated with a slightly nasal tone; high - shrill. The middle and high registers oboe composers use most often. The oboe is harder than the flute, play mobile, technically complex musical episodes. But lingering melodies sound on it is bright and expressive.
Very good passes oboe dreamy, pensive mood, helps to paint a picture of a rural nature. Remember: in the letter scene Tatiana in Tchaikovsky's "Eugene Onegin" at the words "...we Woke up and the sun rises. The shepherd plays..." sounds a folk oboe, imitating the sound of a shepherd's horn.
P. I. Tchaikovsky. Eugene Onegin.
Scene and duet Tatiana and Babysitting
Oboe is charged with the second part of the Fourth Symphony Tchaikovsky - pensive, mournful tune.
P. I. Tchaikovsky. Symphony No. 4, part 2.
Andantino in modo di canzone
Two oboes play the tune of the Dance of the little swans in Swan lake.
Dance of the little swans from the ballet P. I. Tchaikovsky "Swan lake"
But Prokofiev in his symphonic tale "Peter and the wolf" instructed oboe in the low register to portray a duck, quacking loudly and clumsily perevalivalosj from side to side.
S. Prokofiev. "Peter and the Wolf". The duck theme
The closest relative of the oboe - English horn, appeared in the first half of the eighteenth century. Otherwise it is called Altovis oboe.