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Music dictionary in the stories. The Letter A

ACCORDION

The accordion is a key-wind musical instrument, consisting of two boxes, connecting the bellows and two keyboards: for left hand keyboard button, right - keyboards, piano type. Accordions with push button type right keyboard called Bayan.

Bayan and accordion

You might be surprised, but the ancestor of the accordion are... organ and harmonica!

In 1822, Berlin configuration wizard piano and organ Christians Bushman invented a mouth organ, in order to facilitate the setting bodies. It was a small box with a built in her metal tongue. She was beginning to sound when the wizard breathed in her breath.

In a similar way was built Eastern body, which came to Europe from China in the eighteenth century: he was a 17 bamboo pipes of different sizes with copper tabs on the inside, which was fastened in a circle to the metal housing with a mouthpiece. In the XIX century, the reeds were used in the manufacture of the Western body.

However, had boxes of Bushman one drawback: it had to hold his hand! For work - setting instruments had only one arm. Then Bushman has Udell every tongue fur. Now during the setup wizard put the device next to him, stretched fur up and released. Shrinking under the pressure of its own weight, fur pull air on the tongue, and he sounded.

Now both the master's hand remained free. In addition, freed and mouth, which is also easier. Later, the wizard guessed that there is no need to do each own tongue fur, or you can embed all the tabs in one fur. To all the reeds are not sounded simultaneously, the master has equipped them with valves. To obtain a desired tone, it was necessary to open the valve on the corresponding tab, and leave the rest closed.

Later Bushman understood that the invented design can be converted into a separate musical instrument. So master, facilitating their work, came to a new form of musical instrument. And he was at that time only 17 years old...

Christians Bushman
Christians, Fridrih Ludwig Bushman
(1805-1864)

In 1829 in Vienna master Cyril Demian produced together with his sons Guido and Charles organ with chord accompaniment in the left hand and called her "accordion" (in French accordeon means "hand organ"). He immediately applied to the instrument, and received a patent for his invention and the exclusive right to the production of accordions. The first accordion was only 5 buttons, and each button was playing 2 chords: one chord during compression of the bellows and the other tensile furs. So you could only play very simple tunes.

The first accordion
An exact copy of the first accordion of Damiana

Since all harmonics having chord accompaniment, were called in many countries accordions.

Modern accordion sounds emit freely slipping metal reeds - thin plates, which vary under the action of the air jet. Air is blown furs. The contractor left hand controls furs, and presses the button, the bass and chords for accompaniment. Right hand on the keyboard, the accordionist plays the melody. Each key accordion gives two sounds: one pulling, the other clenching tool.

The accordion has incorporated features several musical instruments:

- in its form it resembles an accordion,
- technical device refers to harmony,
keys and the ability to switch the register closest to the piano.

But it sounds modern accordion:

Consuelo Velazquez Torres. Became of mucho. Takes Peter Dredge

Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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