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Music dictionary in the stories. Letter


Among the many genres of music one of the most honorable places belongs to the Symphony. Always, from its inception to the present day, it is sensitively reflected his time: the symphonies of Mozart and Beethoven, Berlioz and Mahler, Prokofiev, and Shostakovich is thinking about the era, about man, about the ways of the world, the ways of life on earth.

The Symphony as a separate musical genre emerged relatively recently: some two and a half centuries ago. However, this historically short period of time she was a giant way. The word symphonia in Greek means only consonance. In Ancient Greece, the so-called pleasant combination of sounds.

Later they were to mark the orchestra, introduction to dance Suite.

In the beginning of the XVIII century, this term was replaced with the current concept of the Overture.

The first Symphony in the current understanding appeared in Central Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century. And the time and place of her birth is not random. Born simultaneously in different parts of Europe, in the bowels of the old, established earlier musical forms - dance Suite Opera Overture, Symphony was formed finally in the countries of the German language. In Italy the national art was Opera.

In France, pre-revolutionary, already rich atmosphere of freedom and rebellion, went forward, the other arts, such as literature, painting and theatre - more specific, directly and clearly expressing new, world-shattering ideas. When a few decades later it came to music, in the building of the revolutionary forces full fighter song - "Carmagnola", "CA ira", "La Marseillaise".

The Symphony is still the most complex of all types not associated with other arts music, demanded other conditions for its development, for full perception: required dumisane, generalization - work calm and focused. No wonder the centre of philosophical thought, reflected the social changes in Europe in the late eighteenth century, was in Germany, far from public storms. At the same time in Germany and Austria has developed a rich tradition of instrumental music. Here and there appeared Symphony.

It originated in the works of composers of Czechs and Austrians, and final appearance in the works of Haydn to Mozart and Beethoven to achieve prosperity. This classical Symphony (Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven in music history came as a "Viennese classics", as the majority of their work is connected with this city) was formed as a cycle of four parts, which embodies different aspects of human life.

The first part of the Symphony is a fast, active, sometimes preceded by a slow introduction. It is written in Sonata form.

The second part is a slow - usually thoughtful, elegiac or pastoral, that is dedicated to the peaceful scenes of nature, the calm repose and meditation. Sometimes the second part and mournful, concentrated, deep.

The third movement is a minuet and, later, Beethoven, and Scherzo. This is a game, fun, live pictures of national life, exciting dance...

The finale is the end of the entire cycle, the conclusion from all that has been shown, thought, felt in the previous parts. Often the final is zhizneutverzhdenija, triumphant, victorious or festive character.

In the General scheme, symphonies by various composers are very different. So, if Haydn symphonies, mostly serene, joyful, and very few of his created 104 works of this genre appear serious or sad tone, the symphonies of Mozart's much more personal, sometimes considered as precursors of romantic art.

Beethoven's symphonies are saturated with images of struggle. They fully reflected the time era of the French revolution, high, inspired by the civil ideas. Symphony of Beethoven is monumental works, the depth, the breadth and power of generalization is not inferior to Opera, drama, romance. They have a deep drama, heroism, pathos. The last of Beethoven's symphonies, the Ninth, includes choir, singing enthusiastic and majestic hymn "Embrace millions on poems of Schiller's ode "To joy". The composer draws the grandiose picture free, joyful humanity, which seeks to universal brotherhood.

Ludwig van Beethoven. Ode "To joy" from Symphony No. 9

At the same time with Beethoven, in the same Vienna, lived another great Austrian composer, Franz Schubert. His symphonies sound like a lyrical poem, as a deeply personal, intimate expression. With Schubert in the European music in the genre of the Symphony's new over - romanticism. Representatives of romanticism in music in the Symphony, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Berlioz.

Hector Berlioz, the outstanding French composer, first created the program Symphony (see the story of programmatic music), writing her poetry program in the form of short stories about the artist's life.

Symphony in Russia is primarily Tchaikovsky. His symphonic compositions exhilarating and exciting story about one man's struggle for life, for happiness. But it Borodin: his symphonies differ epic breadth, power, truly Russian scale. It Rachmaninov, Scriabin and Glazunov, who created eight symphonies beautiful, bright, balanced.

In the symphonies D. Shostakovich embodied XX century with its storms, tragedies and accomplishments. They reflect the events of our history and images of the people of the contemporaries of the composer, building, fighting, searching, suffering and victorious. Symphony S. Prokofiev differ epic wisdom, deep drama, clean and bright lyrics, sharp joke.

D. Shostakovich. Symphony No. 7 op. 60 "Leningrad" in C major. Part 1

Any Symphony is the whole world. World of the artist who created it. World time, it gave rise to. Listening to classical symphonies, we become spiritually richer, we are attached to the treasures of human genius, are equal in value to the tragedies of Shakespeare, the novels of Tolstoy, Pushkin's poetry, the paintings of Raphael.

Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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