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Music dictionary in the stories. Letter


If you compare the Sonata with the literary genre, the most suitable for comparison with the novel or story. Likewise, the Sonata is divided into several "chapters" - parts. Usually three or four of them. Like the novel or the novel, Sonata populated by various "heroes": the musical themes. These topics are not just follow each other and interact, influence each other, and sometimes in conflict.

The greatest intensity and severity differs the first part of the Sonata. Therefore, it formed its own special form, called a Sonata. The development of music, built in Sonata form, can be compared to the action in dramatic play. First, the composer introduces us to the main characters and musical themes. It's like the plot of the drama. Then the action develops, increasing, reaches the top, followed by the showdown.

Thus, Sonata form consists of three sections - ties or exposure, in which the main themes appear (exhibited) in different keys, the actual action - development - and end - Reprise.

Development - the middle section of the Sonata form - section of the most controversial, least sustainable. The topicsgiven for the first time in the exhibition, shown here with new, unexpected sides. They are split up for a short motifs collide, intertwine, mutate, compete with one another. At the end of the development of state fragility, struggle, reaches the highest point of climax and requires discharge, calm. Them brings a Reprise.

In the recapitulation, and there is a repetition of what was in the exposition, but with the changes caused by the events development. All the musical themes of the Sonata in the Reprise appear in one, the main key.

Sometimes completes the first part of the Sonata code. In it are the excerpts of the most important themes part, again approved by the principal, the "winning" tone.

Ludwig van Beethoven. Sonata No. 23 Op.57 piano ("Appassionata"). Part 1. Allegro assai

The second part, in contrast to the first, composed, as a rule, in slow motion. The music has a slow current of thought, extols the beauty of the senses, draws a sublime landscape.

Ludwig van Beethoven. Sonata No. 23 Op.57 piano ("Appassionata"). Part 2. Andante con moto

The finale of the Sonata is usually fast, sometimes even rapid motion. This is the result, the conclusions from the previous sections: it may be optimistic, life-affirming, but sometimes it happens and dramatic and even tragic.

Ludwig van Beethoven. Sonata No. 23 for piano ("Appassionata") Part 3. Allegro ma non troppo - Presto

Classical Sonata cycle formed at one time with the Symphonyin the second half of the eighteenth century. However, the term "Sonata" appeared in the XVI century. It is derived from the Italian word sonare - sound. Originally called any instrumental work unlike cantata (cantare - sing). And only with the emergence of a new genre of instrumental music this name was to belong to him alone completely.

The Sonata was written many composers, starting with Corelli (XVII century) to the present day. Era instrumental work was sonatas by D. Scarlatti, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Schumann. Remarkable for their artistic merit Sonata Russian and Soviet composers: Rachmaninoff, Scriabin, Medtner, A. N. Alexandrov, Myaskovsky, Prokofiev.

In addition to the solo piano sonatas, there are sonatas for more tools: sonatas for violin or cello and piano, instrumental trios and quartets - they usually are in shape sonatas.

Sonata for solo instrument and orchestra can be called instrumental concert.

Those who start to study music, we have to deal not with the sonatas, and with Sonatine. In the literal translation of the word "Sonatina" means "little Sonata". It is less of this Sonata in size, and besides, it's much easier technically simpler in content.

Music dictionary in stories
Printed materials of the eponymous book by L. Mikheeva (Moscow, "Soviet composer", 1984)

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