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THE MENAGERIE AT THE PORCH
MOSQUITOES

MOSQUITOES UBIQUITOUS PARASITES

For seven miles Komar was looking for, and he on his nose.
Proverb

Fifteen years ago released an interesting book: "the Animal population of Moscow and Moscow region". It and about the birds and the frogs, and harmful rodents, and mosquitoes, of course. In a huge city, freely - you can spawn in Moscow ponds and rivers of the area of about 800 hectares. However, in landscaped ponds centre this does not happen. But the suburbs, parks and wet basements for biting critters grace.

In Moscow, home to 29 species of mosquitoes. Most of them belong to the genus of Aedes. It hurts just bite not purebred komareki, and if tykes - a mixture of three kinds of Culex. On Muscovites flying flies usually encroach in the spring (80% of the total population). In the summer they get less, and in autumn they are not uncommon. And if in August-September in the apartment to kill kamaraju, you can crush the last Mohicans. Actually, mosquitoes lived in Moscow before Yuri Dolgorukov. In the twenties or thirties of our century, they were forced to come to terms with asphalt-concrete centre.

To a huge regret, urban mosquitoes are not exotic - they drink the blood of residents of European capitals, sibs (however, in the far East to the citizens they have not yet arrived). In the autumn of 1974 mosquito clouds filled Leningrad. About this attack wrote "the Truth" and special editions. What happened? Why Leningrad mosquitoes messed up spring to autumn?

Professor A. C. Monchadskii explained what happened. The testes of Cusack waited for spring. And she was dry-presha. Wet was only in the autumn. Here are the mosquitoes and confused times of the year. But in the city centre people were construction and think bloodsuckers, so accustomed to the city life that was awake all year round: bred in dark damp basements, where and frost zero temperature.

First celexa-citizen in Leningrad caught in 1939 in Moscow earlier). In 1965 he was found in Kirishi, and now he lives a few towns in the Leningrad region. And settled firmly in Kirishi lives in the basement every tenth house. I believe that mosquitoes from Leningrad to the periphery of travel in buses and cars. Travel with comfort, but the vitality they do not take - thrive in the heat of the dungeons, lives in unthinkable dirty basement water in which wild relatives would be immediately killed.

Employee of the Leningrad regional sanitary-epidemiological station P. E. gold is concerned: "Wildewiese mosquitoes penetrate into residential or industrial premises, and having high blood-sucking activity, strongly annoy people. In some cases, the number of strikers in the winter of mosquitoes was so high that it required urgent measures for their destruction. Present: winter mosquitoes plagued you in the room, in the workplace!

On the street it's snowing, and in the homes of the battle: the cellars and stairwells sprinkle with HCH, watered with a solution of chlorophos. As much hassle with narrow and low technical basements, where the stretch of pipe factory communications! But, alas, a year later it all starts again. Isn't it better to shoot the arrow into Achilles ' heel of mosquitoes is to deprive them of the opportunity to breed, dry basements?

In the field it is easier than in Leningrad. Leningrad is on the low place, and groundwater lick foundations. Yes and sewer pipes here not really watched. Broken glass, loose closing doors allowed the insects to fly under the house and get out. Pumping water and sealing dungeons gave good results: in the Leningrad basement on a square meter of water resided in the average 4840 mosquito larvae, and a few years later - 154.

Urban insects should be kept in check, otherwise they will show us an unusual step. Their rapid evolution. That's just one feature: wild mosquitoes no good water, which washed clothes, and for urban transcend all sewer cocktail. And the saddest thing is that even tightly down wet basements, we won't eliminate the insects breed bloodless way, not biting. Bloodsuckers can years to wait, when you open the door. And I'll repay the favour.

To confirm that this is not fiction, I will refer at least to the work of W. G. Sichinava. He collected pupae of Kulikov (Piskunov) in contaminated organic wet basements Sukhumi. In the laboratory safely withdrawn kamariki. They were divided into three parts. First drank only water. Other - sugar syrup. Others were able to spoil to drink chicken blood. And what? Viable eggs laid by all, even those that still subsist clean water. They probably lay proteins for the future, even as larvae. However, individuals that had been tormenting chickens, brought twice as many testicles than kamariki sitting on the water. But the striking fact remains: bloodsuckers can do plumbing.

...Thirty years ago, a few mosquitoes got into the plane, flying from Africa to Brazil. There uninvited guests bred. For Brazilians it turned grief: from malaria epidemic died 12 thousand people. In the past, and we raged malaria; on the outbreak of 1923 in the RSFSR she has had over ten million people.

Not one malaria risk kamariki in their Arsenal encephalitis, tularemia, yellow fever...

Here are the words of doctor of biological Sciences A. C. Gutsevich: "In the salivary glands of one mosquito can contain as many virus Eastern American encephalitis, as it is necessary for the deaths of 100 000 white mice". But the salivary glands of kamariki is tiny tubes that are only visible under a microscope.

...In the summer of 1966 I as a reporter visited the International Congress for Microbiology. What else was said in the reports! And on the microbial synthesis of proteins from crude oil, and about growing animals, the body of which no microorganisms, and global plans for the eradication of malaria... it Was something to wonder. Was and what to be frightened. For example, French researchers reported that the flies-Drosophila a virus is found close to the virus of rabies, and that this virus thrives in the mosquito body. Will not be added to disasters caused by kumarihamy, and rabies? You only have to drink the blood of the patient of a Fox or wolf, and another time for lunch on the person...

The conclusion from all this one: kamariki - parasites. And some! Therefore, they often write in the journal of Parasitology. And of course, parasites need to fight. This will be discussed further.

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The menagerie at the porch

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