Ancient Egyptians wrote on papyrus. This site plant that grew in Egypt almost everywhere, were considered Royal. The stalk of the papyrus ate, it was made fabrics, mats and rafts. And in the beginning of the III Millennium BC papyrus began to create material for writing. The stems were cut into narrow strips, moistened, dried in the sun and glued in a wide tapes that were rolled into scrolls.
For writing the ancient people also used parchment - dressed skins of various animals. Its name parchment derived from the name of the state of Pergamum, which was invented. The parchment was more comfortable when bending it did not break, as the papyrus. However, the parchment was expensive, and not every student could afford such luxury. Yes and books written on it, was worth a lot. One such book you could buy a house and the land on which he stood.
In Veliky Novgorod and other Northern cities of Russia wrote on birch bark - the top layer of the bark of the tree. Archeologists have found many ancient Epistles, written in this material.